Passiflora, a genus with more than 400 species, exhibits a high diversity of floral and vegetative structures and a complex taxonomy, which includes 23 subgenera and many sections and series. To better understand Passiflora's variability and interspecific relationships, the phylogeny of 61 species, classified in 11 of 23 suggested subgenera, was investigated. Three molecular markers were used, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (nrITS), the plastid trnL-trnF spacer regions (∼1000 bp), and the rps4 plastid gene (∼570 bp). Three major clades were highly supported, independent of the marker and phylogenetic method used; one included the subgenera Distephana, Dysosmia, Dysosmioides, Passiflora, and Tacsonioides, a second, the subgenera Adopogyne, Decaloba, Murucuja, and Pseudomurucuja, and a third, the subgenus Astrophea. We call these the Passiflora, Decaloba, and Astrophea clades, respectively. The position of subgenus Deidamioides is undefined. The monophyly of Passiflora could not be statistically corroborated, and the relationships among the major clades and of these clades with the related genera remain unresolved. Our results indicate that a reevaluation of the monophyly of Passiflora and its infrageneric classification is necessary.
Iridaceae are one of the largest families of Lilianae and probably also among the best studied of monocotyledons. To further evaluate generic, tribal, and subfamilial relationships we have produced four plastid DNA data sets for 57 genera of Iridaceae plus outgroups: rps4, rbcL (both protein-coding genes), the trnL intron, and the trnL-F intergenic spacer. All four matrices produce similar although not identical trees, and we thus analyzed them in a combined analysis, which produced a highly resolved and well-supported topology, in spite of the fact that the partition homogeneity test indicated strong incongruence. In each of the individual trees, some genera or groups of genera are misplaced relative to morphological cladistic studies, but the combined analysis produced a pattern much more similar to these previous ideas of relationships. In the combined tree, all subfamilies were resolved as monophyletic, except Nivenioideae that formed a grade in which Ixioideae were embedded. Achlorophyllous Geosiris (sometimes referred to Geosiridaceae or Burmanniaceae) fell within the nivenioid grade. Most of the tribes were monophyletic, and Isophysis (Tasmanian) was sister to the rest of the family; Diplarrhena (Australian) fell in a well-supported position as sister to Irideae/Sisyrinchieae/Tigridieae/Mariceae (i.e., Iridoideae); Bobartia of Sisyrinchieae is supported as a member of Irideae. The paraphyly of Nivenioideae is suspicious due to extremely high levels of sequence divergence, and when they were constrained to be monophyletic the resulting trees were only slightly less parsimonious (<1.0%). However, this subfamily also lacks clear morphological synapomorphies and is highly heterogeneous, so it is difficult to develop a strong case on nonmolecular grounds for their monophyly.
Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing.
Saccharum s.l. is polyphyletic and Tripidium should be recognized as a distinct genus. However, no strong evidence was found to support the segregation of Erianthus. The taxonomic circumscription of the South American species of the genus was resolved and the occurrence of natural hybrids was documented. Better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Saccharum and relatives may be useful for sugarcane breeders to identify potential taxa for interspecific and intergeneric crosses in the genetic improvement of sugarcane.
Floral glandular structures and especially trichomal elaiophores evolved multiple times independently in the American tribes of Iridoideae. The distribution pattern of species displaying glandular trichomes across the phylogeny reveals lability in the pollination system and suggests that these structures may have played a significant role in the diversification of the Iridoideae on the American continent.
BackgroundPaspalum (Poaceae) is an important genus of the tribe Paniceae, which includes several species of economic importance for foraging, turf and ornamental purposes, and has a complex taxonomical classification. Because of the widespread interest in several species of this genus, many accessions have been conserved in germplasm banks and distributed throughout various countries around the world, mainly for the purposes of cultivar development and cytogenetic studies. Correct identification of germplasms and quantification of their variability are necessary for the proper development of conservation and breeding programs. Evaluation of microsatellite markers in different species of Paspalum conserved in a germplasm bank allowed assessment of the genetic differences among them and assisted in their proper botanical classification.ResultsSeventeen new polymorphic microsatellites were developed for Paspalum atratum Swallen and Paspalum notatum Flüggé, twelve of which were transferred to 35 Paspalum species and used to evaluate their variability. Variable degrees of polymorphism were observed within the species. Based on distance-based methods and a Bayesian clustering approach, the accessions were divided into three main species groups, two of which corresponded to the previously described Plicatula and Notata Paspalum groups. In more accurate analyses of P. notatum accessions, the genetic variation that was evaluated used thirty simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and revealed seven distinct genetic groups and a correspondence of these groups to the three botanical varieties of the species (P. notatum var. notatum, P. notatum var. saurae and P. notatum var. latiflorum).ConclusionsThe molecular genetic approach employed in this study was able to distinguish many of the different taxa examined, except for species that belong to the Plicatula group, which has historically been recognized as a highly complex group. Our molecular genetic approach represents a valuable tool for species identification in the initial assessment of germplasm as well as for characterization, conservation and successful species hybridization.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.