Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) provides a flexible framework for service composition. Using standard-based protocols (such as SOAP and WSDL), composite services can be constructed by integrating atomic services developed independently. Algorithms are needed to select service components with various QoS levels according to some application-dependent performance requirements. We design a broker-based architecture to facilitate the selection of QoS-based services. The objective of service selection is to maximize an application-specific utility function under the end-to-end QoS constraints. The problem is modeled in two ways: the combinatorial model and the graph model. The combinatorial model defines the problem as a multidimension multichoice 0-1 knapsack problem (MMKP). The graph model defines the problem as a multiconstraint optimal path (MCOP) problem. Efficient heuristic algorithms for service processes of different composition structures are presented in this article and their performances are studied by simulations. We also compare the pros and cons between the two models.
We present Spider, a large-scale, complex and cross-domain semantic parsing and textto-SQL dataset annotated by 11 college students. It consists of 10,181 questions and 5,693 unique complex SQL queries on 200 databases with multiple tables, covering 138 different domains. We define a new complex and cross-domain semantic parsing and textto-SQL task where different complex SQL queries and databases appear in train and test sets. In this way, the task requires the model to generalize well to both new SQL queries and new database schemas. Spider is distinct from most of the previous semantic parsing tasks because they all use a single database and the exact same programs in the train set and the test set. We experiment with various state-of-the-art models and the best model achieves only 12.4% exact matching accuracy on a database split setting. This shows that Spider presents a strong challenge for future research. Our dataset and task are publicly available at https://yale-lily. github.io/spider.
Polycrystalline BiFeO3 nanoparticles (size 80–120 nm) are prepared by a simple sol–gel technique. Such nanoparticles are very efficient for photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants under irradiation from ultraviolet to visible frequencies. The BiFeO3 nanoparticles also demonstrate weak ferromagnetism of about 0.06 μB/Fe at room temperature, in good agreement with theoretical calculations.
By means of two supramolecular systems - peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps - we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, function and energy landscape are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.
Many methods for correcting harmonic partition functions for the presence of torsional motions employ some form of one-dimensional torsional treatment to replace the harmonic contribution of a specific normal mode. However, torsions are often strongly coupled to other degrees of freedom, especially other torsions and low-frequency bending motions, and this coupling can make assigning torsions to specific normal modes problematic. Here, we present a new class of methods, called multi-structural (MS) methods, that circumvents the need for such assignments by instead adjusting the harmonic results by torsional correction factors that are determined using internal coordinates. We present three versions of the MS method: (i) MS-AS based on including all structures (AS), i.e., all conformers generated by internal rotations; (ii) MS-ASCB based on all structures augmented with explicit conformational barrier (CB) information, i.e., including explicit calculations of all barrier heights for internal-rotation barriers between the conformers; and (iii) MS-RS based on including all conformers generated from a reference structure (RS) by independent torsions. In the MS-AS scheme, one has two options for obtaining the local periodicity parameters, one based on consideration of the nearly separable limit and one based on strongly coupled torsions. The latter involves assigning the local periodicities on the basis of Voronoi volumes. The methods are illustrated with calculations for ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentyl radical as well as two one-dimensional torsional potentials. The MS-AS method is particularly interesting because it does not require any information about conformational barriers or about the paths that connect the various structures.
Achieving sustained drug delivery to mucosal surfaces is a major challenge due to the presence of the protective mucus layer that serves to trap and rapidly remove foreign particulates. Nanoparticles engineered to rapidly penetrate mucosal barriers (mucus-penetrating particles, “MPP”) have shown promise for improving drug distribution, retention and efficacy at mucosal surfaces. MPP are densely coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which shields the nanoparticle core from adhesive interactions with mucus. However, the PEG density required to impart the “stealth” properties to nanoparticles in mucus, and thus, uniform distribution in vivo, is still unknown. We prepared biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a range of PEG surface densities by blending various ratios of a diblock copolymer of PLGA and 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG5k) with PLGA. We then evaluated the impact of PEG surface density, measured using an 1H NMR method, on mucin binding in vitro, nanoparticle transport in freshly obtained human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) ex vivo, and nanoparticle distribution in the mouse cervicovaginal tract in vivo. We found that at least 5% PEG was required to effectively shield the nanoparticle core from interacting with mucus components in vitro and ex vivo, thus leading to enhanced nanoparticle distribution throughout the mouse vagina in vivo. We then demonstrated that biodegradable MPP could be formulated from blends of PLGA and PLGA-PEG polymers of various molecular weights, and that these MPP provide tunable drug loading and drug release rates and durations. Overall, we describe a methodology for rationally designing biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for more uniform delivery to the vagina.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.