Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterized by progressive heart failure, and is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Recently, cellular therapy for end-stage heart failure has been emerging. We herein report a 56-year-old male who received a transplant of autologous myoblast sheets manufactured in temperature-responsive culture dishes. His clinical condition improved markedly, leaving him without any arrhythmia and able to discontinue using a left ventricular assist system and avoid cardiac transplantation. These findings suggest that cellular therapy using myoblast sheets is a promising new strategy for treating patients with end-stage DCM. This method might be an effective alternative to heart transplantation in the near future.
Our study indicated that this novel tissue-engineered vascular graft promoted in situ tissue regeneration and did not require ex vivo cell seeding, thereby conferring better patency on small-caliber vascular prostheses.
SC sheet implantation improved cardiac function by attenuating the cardiac remodeling in the porcine ischemic myocardium, suggesting a promising strategy for myocardial regeneration therapy in the impaired myocardium.
Objectives: Despite recent advances in cardiovascular surgery, hyperbilirubinemia after heart valve surgery occurs often and the mechanism is not well clarified. We evaluated the incidence and nature of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia in heart valve surgery patients to analyze its risk factors and to identify its clinical significance for associated morbidity and mortality. Methods: We investigated 334 consecutive patients who underwent heart valve surgery. Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was defined as total serum bilirubin concentration greater than 3 mg/dl at any postoperative measurement point. Results: Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia developed in 63 patients (19.0%) and was associated with greater in-hospital mortality (15.9 vs. 1.5%, p < 0.01). Univariate analysis revealed congestive heart failure history, cardiogenic shock, infective endocarditis, preoperative liver dysfunction, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and transfusion as significantly related to postoperative hyperbilirubinemia. In multivariate analysis, preoperative liver dysfunction [odds ratio (OR) 6.5, p < 0.05] and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 1.007, p < 0.01) were independent predictors. In postoperative hyperbilirubinemia patients, preoperative New York Heart Association status and history of heart failure were associated with outcome. Conclusions: Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia remains common in patients undergoing heart valve surgery and is associated with a high rate of in-hospital mortality. For patients with heart failure or liver dysfunction, meticulous operative management is required to reduce cardiopulmonary bypass time and transfusion.
Cell-based therapies are promising strategies for myocardial repair following myocardial infarction. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to generate many cardiomyocytes, and they hold significant promise for the application of regenerative medicine to heart failure. Here, we developed cardiac tissue sheets, termed bioengineered myocardium (BM), from mouse iPS cells and measured cardiac performance following BM implantation in a rat chronic myocardial infarction model. Immunostaining analyses revealed that the ␣-actinin ؉ cell population was isolated with more than 99% purity under specific culture conditions. To evaluate the contribution of BM to the improvements in cardiac performance, we induced myocardial infarction in 30 F344/NJcl-rnu/rnu rats by left anterior descending coronary ligation. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, 2 weeks after ligation: a BM implantation group (n ؍ 15) and a sham group (n ؍ 15). Echocardiography and catheter examination showed that the BM implantation significantly improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac remodeling compared with the sham group. Histological analyses demonstrated that the implanted BM survived at the epicardial implantation site 4 weeks after implantation. The implanted BM survived and attenuated left ventricular remodeling in the rat chronic myocardial infarction model. Thus, BM derived from iPS cells might be a promising new treatment for heart failure. STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2012;1:430 -437
BackgroundAlthough microRNA (miRNA) regulates initiation and/or progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) in canine AF models, the underlying mechanism in humans remains unclear. We speculated that certain miRNAs in atrial tissue are related to AF, and evaluated the relationship of miRNA expression in human atrial tissue in cardiac surgery patients.MethodsRight atrial tissues from 29 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were divided into 3 groups [A: chronic AF or unsuccessful maze, n=6; B: successful maze, n=10; C: sinus rhythm (SR) n=13]. miRNA expression was determined using high density microarrays and with Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fibrosis was examined using Masson trichrome staining.ResultsmiRNA microarray analysis showed elevated miRNA-21, miRNA-23b, miRNA-199b, and miRNA-208b in AF as compared to SR groups. RT-PCR showed elevated miRNA-21 (1.9-fold) and miRNA-208b (4.2-fold) in AF as compared to the SR groups. miRNA-21 expression increased from Group C to A (A: 2.1-fold, B: 1.8-fold, C: 1.0-fold). Fibrosis increased from C to A (A: 43.0±12.9%, B: 21.3±6.1%, C: 11.9±3.1%). Percent fibrosis and miRNA-21 expression were correlated (r=0.508, p<0.05). The plasma levels of miRNA-21 in AF patients was significantly decreased as compared to the healthy volunteers (p<0.05).ConclusionThe expression of miRNA-21 in human atrial tissue was found to be related to atrial fibrosis and might affect AF occurrence, indicating its usefulness as a biomarker for cardiac surgery management.
Background-It remains controversial whether restrictive mitral annuloplasty (RMA) for functional mitral regurgitation (MR) can induce functional mitral stenosis (MS) that may cause postoperative residual pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods and Results-One hundred eight patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and severe MR underwent RMA with stringent downsizing of the mitral annulus. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and mitral valve performance variables were determined by Doppler echocardiography prospectively and 1 month after RMA. Fifty-eight patients underwent postoperative hemodynamic measurements. Postoperative echocardiography showed a mean pressure half-time of 92Ϯ14 ms, a transmitral mean gradient of 2.9Ϯ1.1 mm Hg, and a mitral valve effective orifice area of 2.4Ϯ0.4 cm
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