Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the 10-year adherence to and identify the predictors of dropout from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the continuity, dropout, or other behaviors of 181 patients who initiated CPAP treatment at the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital from January 2003 to June 2005. Results Among a total of 181 patients, 56 (30.9%) dropped out of the treatment. Among the 125 patients who did not dropout, 54 continued CPAP treatment for > 10 years, 16 completed the treatment with OSA improvement, and 7 could not complete the treatment owing to unavoidable reasons such as death, dementia, hospitalization for serious illness, or migration to other countries. Further, 47 patients moved to another facility, whereas 1 patient purchased a CPAP device and stopped visiting our facility. Among the 56 patients who dropped out, approximately 50% of the patients dropped out within a year, and all dropped out within 76 months. Comparing demographics, OSA parameters, and CPAP parameters between the patients who did and did not drop out of the treatment, Cox regression analysis indicated that body mass index (BMI) and the first-month utilization rate were clinical variables that were independently associated with discontinuation of CPAP treatment.Conclusion The results of this study show that BMI and the first-month utilization rate of CPAP treatment are the predictors of the long-term adherence to this treatment.
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