This paper has twin aims. Firstly, a multigrid design approach for optimization of an unconventional morphing wing is proposed. The structural design problem is assigned to optimize wing mass, lift effectiveness, and buckling factor subject to structural safety requirements. Design variables consist of partial topology, nodal positions, and component sizes of a wing internal structure. Such a design process can be accomplished by using multiple resolutions of ground elements, which is called a multigrid approach. Secondly, an opposite-based multiobjective population-based incremental learning (OMPBIL) is proposed for comparison with the original multiobjective population-based incremental learning (MPBIL). Multiobjective design problems with single-grid and multigrid design variables are then posed and tackled by OMPBIL and MPBIL. The results show that using OMPBIL in combination with a multigrid design approach is the best design strategy. OMPBIL is superior to MPBIL since the former provides better population diversity. Aeroelastic trim for an elastic morphing wing is also presented.
This paper presents a novel constraint handling technique for optimum path generation of four-bar linkages using evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Usually, the design problem is assigned to minimize the error between desired and obtained coupler curves with penalty constraints. It is found that the currently used constraint handling technique is rather inefficient. In this work, we propose a new technique, termed a path repairing technique, to deal with the constraints for both input crank rotation and Grashof criterion. Three traditional path generation test problems are used to test the proposed technique. Metaheuristic algorithms, namely, artificial bee colony optimization (ABC), adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive (JADE), population-based incremental learning (PBIL), teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), real-code ant colony optimization (ACOR), a grey wolf optimizer (GWO), and a sine cosine algorithm (SCA), are applied for finding the optimum solutions. The results show that new technique is a superior constraint handling technique while TLBO is the best method for synthesizing four-bar linkages.
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