A challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics is spontaneously to form intended superstructures from designed building blocks. In fields such as crystal engineering and the design of porous materials, this typically involves building blocks of organic molecules, sometimes operating together with metallic ions or clusters. The translation of such ideas to nanoparticles and colloidal-sized building blocks would potentially open doors to new materials and new properties, but the pathways to achieve this goal are still undetermined. Here we show how colloidal spheres can be induced to self-assemble into a complex predetermined colloidal crystal-in this case a colloidal kagome lattice-through decoration of their surfaces with a simple pattern of hydrophobic domains. The building blocks are simple micrometre-sized spheres with interactions (electrostatic repulsion in the middle, hydrophobic attraction at the poles, which we call 'triblock Janus') that are also simple, but the self-assembly of the spheres into an open kagome structure contrasts with previously known close-packed periodic arrangements of spheres. This open network is of interest for several theoretical reasons. With a view to possible enhanced functionality, the resulting lattice structure possesses two families of pores, one that is hydrophobic on the rims of the pores and another that is hydrophilic. This strategy of 'convergent' self-assembly from easily fabricated colloidal building blocks encodes the target supracolloidal architecture, not in localized attractive spots but instead in large redundantly attractive regions, and can be extended to form other supracolloidal networks.
Clusters in the form of aggregates of a small number of elemental units display structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic properties different from those of bulk materials. We studied the kinetic pathways of self-assembly of "Janus spheres" with hemispherical hydrophobic attraction and found key differences from those characteristic of molecular amphiphiles. Experimental visualization combined with theory and molecular dynamics simulation shows that small, kinetically favored isomers fuse, before they equilibrate, into fibrillar triple helices with at most six nearest neighbors per particle. The time scales of colloidal rearrangement combined with the directional interactions resulting from Janus geometry make this a prototypical system to elucidate, on a mechanistic level and with single-particle kinetic resolution, how chemical anisotropy and reaction kinetics coordinate to generate highly ordered structures.
We describe experiments using single-particle tracking in which mean-square displacement is simply proportional to time (Fickian), yet the distribution of displacement probability is not Gaussian as should be expected of a classical random walk but, instead, is decidedly exponential for large displacements, the decay length of the exponential being proportional to the square root of time. The first example is when colloidal beads diffuse along linear phospholipid bilayer tubes whose radius is the same as that of the beads. The second is when beads diffuse through entangled F-actin networks, bead radius being less than one-fifth of the actin network mesh size. We explore the relevance to dynamic heterogeneity in trajectory space, which has been extensively discussed regarding glassy systems. Data for the second system might suggest activated diffusion between pores in the entangled F-actin networks, in the same spirit as activated diffusion and exponential tails observed in glassy systems. But the first system shows exceptionally rapid diffusion, nearly as rapid as for identical colloids in free suspension, yet still displaying an exponential probability distribution as in the second system. Thus, although the exponential tail is reminiscent of glassy systems, in fact, these dynamics are exceptionally rapid. We also compare with particle trajectories that are at first subdiffusive but Fickian at the longest measurement times, finding that displacement probability distributions fall onto the same master curve in both regimes. The need is emphasized for experiments, theory, and computer simulation to allow definitive interpretation of this simple and clean exponential probability distribution.diffusion ͉ fluorescence ͉ imaging ͉ probability distribution ͉ actin T he supposition that Brownian motion follows Gaussian statistics is seldom tested experimentally. In fact, there are few physical situations in which the statistics of displacement distribution can be measured directly. More often, one simply verifies that mean-square displacement is proportional to time, which defines a diffusion coefficient, D. However, a finite diffusion coefficient does not necessarily stem from a Gaussian distribution, because D only holds information regarding second-order cumulants but not the full probability distribution of displacements (1). Relaxation functions in Fourier space are also heavily relied upon in experimental tests of theories that assume Gaussian statistics, but the limited signal-to-noise ratio in measuring these quantities does not typically allow one to deduce distribution functions in real space with the large dynamic range presented by the experiments described below. It is easy to show formally that other zero-centered distributions than Gaussian, in particular exponentially decaying probability distributions of displacement amplitude, would also lead formally to meansquared displacement proportional to time.Here, using single-particle tracking (2), we report the full displacement probability during Brownian m...
The nonspecific adsorption of charged nanoparticles onto singlecomponent phospholipid bilayers bearing phosphocholine headgroups is shown, from fluorescence and calorimetry experiments, to cause surface reconstruction at the points where nanoparticles adsorb. Nanoparticles of negative charge induce local gelation in otherwise fluid bilayers; nanoparticles of positive charge induce otherwise gelled membranes to fluidize locally. Through this mechanism, the phase state deviates from the nominal phase transition temperature by tens of degrees. This work generalizes the notions of environmentally induced surface reconstruction, prominent in metals and semiconductors. Bearing in mind that chemical composition in these single-component lipid bilayers is the same everywhere, this offers a mechanism to generate patchy functional properties in phospholipid membranes.fluorescence ͉ adsorption ͉ phase transition
Synchronization occurs widely in the natural and technological worlds, from the rhythm of applause and neuron firing to the quantum mechanics of coupled Josephson junctions, but has not been used to produce new spatial structures. Our understanding of self-assembly has evolved independently in the fields of chemistry and materials, and with a few notable exceptions has focused on equilibrium rather than dynamical systems. Here we combine these two phenomena to create synchronization-selected microtubes of Janus colloids, micron-sized spherical particles with different surface chemistry on their opposing hemispheres, which we study using imaging and computer simulation. A thin nickel film coats one hemisphere of each silica particle to generate a discoid magnetic symmetry, such that in a precessing magnetic field its dynamics retain crucial phase freedom. Synchronizing their motion, these Janus spheres self-organize into micrometre-scale tubes in which the constituent particles rotate and oscillate continuously. In addition, the microtube must be tidally locked to the particles, that is, the particles must maintain their orientation within the rotating microtube. This requirement leads to a synchronization-induced structural transition that offers various applications based on the potential to form, disintegrate and fine-tune self-assembled in-motion structures in situ. Furthermore, it offers a generalizable method of controlling structure using dynamic synchronization criteria rather than static energy minimization, and of designing new field-driven microscale devices in which components do not slavishly follow the external field.
We report the synthesis of single-crystalline silver nanowires of atomic dimensions. The ultrathin silver wires with 0.4 nanometer width grow up to micrometer-scale length inside the pores of self-assembled calixhydroquinone nanotubes by electro-/photochemical redox reaction in an ambient aqueous phase. The present subnanowires are very stable under ambient air and aqueous environments, unlike previously reported metal wires of approximately 1 nanometer diameter, which existed only transiently in ultrahigh vacuum. The wires exist as coherently oriented three-dimensional arrays of ultrahigh density and thus could be used as model systems for investigating one-dimensional phenomena and as nanoconnectors for designing nanoelectronic devices.
Individuals in this sample were at least 14 times more likely to be victims of a violent crime than to be arrested for one. In general, the risk associated with being in the community was higher than the risk these individuals posed to the community
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers