Our preliminary study revealed that dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis (unpublished). We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) extract improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in β-amyloid-induced rats. Male rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) [plaque forming β-amyloid; Alzheimer disease (AD)] or β-amyloid (35-25) [non-plaque forming β-amyloid; C (non-Alzheimer disease control)] at a rate of 3.6 nmol/d for 14 d. AD rats were divided into 2 dietary groups that received either 3% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of yuzu (AD-Y) or 3% dextrin (AD-C) in high-fat diets (43% energy as fat). The AD-C group exhibited greater hippocampal β-amyloid deposition, which was not detected in the C group, and attenuated hippocampal insulin signaling. Yuzu treatment prevented β-amyloid accumulation, increased tau phosphorylation, and attenuated hippocampal insulin signaling observed in AD-C rats. Consistent with β-amyloid accumulation, the AD-C rats experienced cognitive dysfunction, which was prevented by yuzu. AD-C rats gained less weight than did C rats due to decreased feed consumption, and yuzu treatment prevented the decrease in feed consumption. Serum glucose concentrations were higher in AD-C than in C rats at 40-120 min after glucose loading during an oral-glucose-tolerance test, but not at 0-40 min. Serum insulin concentrations were highly elevated in AD-C rats but not enough to lower serum glucose to normal concentrations, indicating that rats in the AD-C group had insulin resistance and a borderline diabetic state. Although AD-C rats were profoundly insulin resistant, AD-Y rats exhibited normal first and second phases of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and secretion. In conclusion, yuzu treatment prevented the cognitive dysfunction and impaired energy and glucose homeostasis induced by β-amyloid infusion.
Black carrots (Daucus carota L.) are rich in anthocyanins which contribute many health benefits, but are limited by bioavailability and instability when exposed to oxygen, heat and light. Fermenting black carrots may improve the stability, absorption and bioactivity of its anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether and by what mechanisms the long-term consumption of unfermented black carrot extract (BC) and its extracts fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum (BCLP) or Aspergillus oryzae (BCAO) might prevent menopausal symptoms including impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deficient animals with diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed four different high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin (OVX-control), 2 % BC, 2 % BCLP, or 2 % BCAO for 12 weeks. Sham rats were fed high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin. The contents of total anthocyanins increased in BCAO compared to BC and BCLP, whereas the contents of cyanidin-3-rutinosides, malvidin-3,5-diglycosides and delphine-3-glucoside were lower and cyanidin and malvidin were much higher in BCLP and BCAO than BC. Fat mass and weight gain were lower in descending order of OVX-control [ BC and BCLP [ BCAO due to increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. However, BC, BCLP and especially BCAO all normalized HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in OVX rats. OVX increased serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, but BC, BCLP and BCAO significantly prevented the increases. BCAO markedly decreased hepatic triglyceride levels by increasing gene expressions of CPT-1 and PPAR-a, which are involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreasing mRNA expressions of FAS and SREBP-1c, which are associated with fatty acid synthesis. This was related to increased pAMPK ? pACC signaling and improved hepatic insulin signaling (pAkt ? pFOXO-1). Cyanidin and malvidin markedly decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing CPT-1 and decreasing FAS and SREBP-1c expression in comparison with cyanidin-3-rutinoside and malvidin-3,5-diglycosides. In conclusion, with increasing cyanidin and malvidin, BCAO prevented the exacerbation of lipid and glucose metabolism by activating hepatic insulin signaling and AMPK activation by in OVX rats.
Intermittent fasting may be an effective intervention to protect against age-related metabolic disturbances, although it is still controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of intermittent fasting on the deterioration of the metabolism and cognitive functions in rats with estrogen deficiency and its mechanism was also explored. Ovariectomized rats were infused with β-amyloid (25-35; Alzheimer's disease) or β-amyloid (35-25, Non-Alzheimer's disease; normal cognitive function) into the hippocampus. Each group was randomly divided into two sub-groups: one with intermittent fasting and the other fed ad libitum: Alzheimer's disease-ad libitum, Alzheimer's disease-intermittent fasting, Non-Alzheimer's disease-ad libitum, and Non-Alzheimer's disease-intermittent fasting. Rats in the intermittent fasting groups had a restriction of food consumption to a 3-h period every day. Each group included 10 rats and all rats fed a high-fat diet for four weeks. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease increased tail skin temperature more than Non-Alzheimer's disease and intermittent fasting prevented the increase. Alzheimer's disease reduced bone mineral density in the spine and femur compared to the Non-Alzheimer's disease, whereas bone mineral density in the hip and leg was reduced by intermittent fasting. Fat mass only in the abdomen was decreased by intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting decreased food intake without changing energy expenditure. Alzheimer's disease increased glucose oxidation, whereas intermittent fasting elevated fat oxidation as a fuel source. Alzheimer's disease and intermittent fasting deteriorated insulin resistance in the fasting state but intermittent fasting decreased serum glucose levels after oral glucose challenge by increasing insulin secretion. Alzheimer's disease deteriorated short and spatial memory function compared to the Non-Alzheimer's disease, whereas intermittent fasting prevented memory loss in comparison to ad libitum. Unexpectedly, cortisol levels were increased by Alzheimer's disease but decreased by intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting improved dyslipidemia and liver damage index compared to ad libitum. Alzheimer's disease lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels compared to Non-Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, Alzheimer's disease impaired not only cognitive function but also disturbed energy, glucose, lipid, and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Intermittent fasting protected against the deterioration of these metabolic parameters, but it exacerbated bone mineral density loss and insulin resistance at fasting in Alzheimer's disease-induced estrogen-deficient rats. Impact statement Intermittent fasting was evaluated for its effects on cognitive function and metabolic disturbances in a rat model of menopause and Alzheimer's disease. Intermittent fasting decreased skin temperature and fat mass, and improved glucose tolerance with decreasing food intake. Intermittent fasting also prevented memory loss: short-term and special memory loss. ...
GEB-H, mainly as a result of the action of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin, reduces insulin resistance by decreasing fat accumulation in adipocytes by activating fat oxidation and potentiating leptin signaling in diet-induced obese rats.
We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration (ICV) of brain estrogen and progesterone on menopausal symptoms and their effects on the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in estrogen-deficient rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation, OVX rats were given ICV infusions of either 17β-estradiol (4 μg/day; ICV-E), progesterone(0.8 μg/day; ICV-P), or vehicle (control) for 4 wk. OVX rats in the positive-control group were orally provided 150 μg 17β-estradiol·kg body wt·day. Sham rats had ICV vehicle infusion (normal-control). Serum 17β-estradiol levels of ICV-E and ICV-P groups were higher than the control group but much lower than the normal- and positive-control groups. Tail skin temperature was higher in the control group than the other groups. Serum FSH and LH levels were much higher in the control group than positive- and normal-control groups, but ICV-E and ICV-P lowered the levels similar to the normal-control treatment. ICV-E and ICV-P prevented the decreased energy expenditure in OVX rats. Homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance was lowered in the descending order of the control, positive-control, ICV-P, ICV-E, and normal-control treatments. The decreased bone mineral density was prevented by the positive-control, ICV-E, and ICV-P treatments. The control group exhibited decreased short-term memory and spatial memory compared with the other groups. Surprisingly, the control group exhibited a decreased richness of the gut microbiome compared with normal-control group, and ICV-E protected against the decrease the most. In conclusion, small amounts of brain estrogen and, to some extent, progesterone improved menopausal symptoms by decreasing serum FSH levels and maintaining the diversity of the gut microbiome in estrogen-deficient rats.
BackgroundMenopausal symptoms are associated with inflammation. Curcumin is a well-known anti-inflammatory bioactive compound from turmeric whereas tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a major metabolite of curcumin that may have different efficacies. However, they have not been studied for anti-menopausal symptoms and anti-osteoarthritis effects. We compared the efficacies of curcumin and THC for preventing postmenopausal and osteoarthritis symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) obese rats with monoiodoacetate (MIA) injections into the right knee to generate a similar pathology as osteoarthritis.MethodsOVX rats were provided a 45 % fat diet containing either (1) 0.4 % curcumin (curcumin), (2) 0.4 % THC, (3) 30 μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol + 0.4 % dextrin (positive control), (4) 0.4 % dextrin (placebo; control), or (5) 0.4 % dextrin with no MIA injection (normal control) for 4 weeks. At the beginning of the fifth week, OVX rats were given articular injections of MIA or normal-control saline into the right knee and the assigned diets were provided for an additional 3 weeks.ResultsCurcumin and THC had similar efficacies for skin tail temperature in OVX rats whereas THC, but not curcumin, prevented glucose intolerance, which might be involved in exacerbating osteoarthritis. Both protected against osteoarthritis symptoms and pain-related behaviors better than 17β-estradiol treatment in estrogen-deficient rats. Curcumin and THC prevented the deterioration of articular cartilage compared to control. They also maintained lean body mass and lowered fat mass as much as 17β-estradiol treatment. The improvement in osteoarthritis symptoms was associated with decreased gene expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3 and MMP13 and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)1β, and IL6 in the articular cartilage.ConclusionsTHC and curcumin are effective for treating postmenopausal and osteoarthritis symptoms in OVX rats with MIA-induced osteoarthritis-like symptoms and may have potential as interventions for menopausal and osteoarthritic symptoms in humans.
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