This contribution proposes an enzyme-assisted eco-friendly process for the extraction of non-extractable polyphenols (NEPPs) from black tea leftover (BTLO), an underutilized tea waste. BTLO hydrolyzed with various enzyme formulations was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent (SC-CO + EtOH). A conventional solvent extraction (CSE) was performed using EtOH + HO (80:20, v/v) for comparison purposes. The results revealed that hydrolysis of BTLO with 2.9% (w/w) kemzyme at 45 °C and pH 5.4 for 98 min improved the liberation of NEPPs offering 5-fold higher extract yield (g/100 g) as compared with non-treated BTLO. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and LC-MS characterization of extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids (mainly caffeic and para-coumaric acid) of high antioxidant value. Scanning electron micrograph of the hydrolyzed BTLO samples indicated noteworthy changes in the ultrastructure of BTLO. Moreover, polyphenol extracts obtained by SC-CO + EtOH extraction were found to be cleaner and richer in polyphenols as compared to CSE. The devised enzyme-assisted SC-CO + EtOH extraction process in the present work can be explored as an effective biotechnological mean for the optimal recovery of antioxidant polyphenols. Graphical abstract Enzymatic pretreatment can effectively liberate non-extractable polyphenols (NEPPs) while hydrolyzing the cellulosic and hemicellulosic framework of black tea left overs (BTLO).
The present study was planned to optimize and validate an expedient reverse-phase high chromatography (RP-HPLC) based protocol for the analysis of deferoxamine (DFO) and ferrioxamine (FO) in urinary execration of patients suffering β-thalassemia major. The optimized RP-HPLC method was found to be linear over the wide range of DFO and FO concentration (1-90 μg/mL) with appreciable recovery rates (79.64-97.30%) of quality controls at improved detection and quantitation limits and acceptable inter and intraday variability. Real-time analysis of DFO and FO in the urine of thalassemic patients (male and female) at different intervals of Desferal®(Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation) injection revealed DFO and FO excretion at significantly (p < 0) different rates. The maximum concentrations of DFO (76.7 ± 3.06 μg/mL) and FO (74.2 ± 3.25 μg/mL) were found in urine samples, collected after 6 h of drug infusion while the minimum levels of DFO (1.10 ± 0.12 μg/mL) and FO (2.97 ± 0.13 μg/mL) were excreted by patients after 24 h. The present paper offers balanced conditions for an expedient, reliable and quick determination of DFO and FO in urine samples.
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