Hearing dysfunction has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans, but there is little data on the auditory function of mouse models of AD. Furthermore, characterization of hearing ability in mouse models is needed to ensure that tests of cognition that use auditory stimuli are not confounded by hearing dysfunction. Therefore, we assessed acoustic startle response and pre-pulse inhibition in the double transgenic 5xFAD mouse model of AD from 3-4 to 16 months of age. The 5xFAD mice showed an age-related decline in acoustic startle as early as 3-4 months of age. We subsequently tested auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds at 4 and 13-14 months of age using tone bursts at frequencies of 2-32 kHz. The 5xFAD mice showed increased ABR thresholds for tone bursts between 8 and 32 kHz at 13-14 months of age. Finally, cochleae were extracted and basilar membranes were dissected to count hair cell loss across the cochlea. The 5xFAD mice showed significantly greater loss of both inner and outer hair cells at the apical and basal ends of the basilar membrane than wild-type mice at 15-16 months of age. These results indicate that the 5xFAD mouse model of AD shows age-related decreases in acoustic startle responses, which are at least partially due to age-related peripheral hearing loss. Therefore, we caution against the use of cognitive tests that rely on audition in 5xFAD mice over 3-4 months of age, without first confirming that performance is not confounded by hearing dysfunction.
Mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibit marked differences in life expectancy depending on their genotype and sex. The assessment of frailty could provide a measure of healthspan to facilitate comparisons between different AD models. We used a validated mouse frailty index (FI) assessment tool to explore genotype and sex differences in lifespan and healthspan of 3xTg-AD mice and their B6129F2 wild-type (WT) controls. This tool is based on an approach commonly used in people and quantifies frailty by counting the accumulation of age-related health deficits. The number of deficits in an individual divided by the total number measured yields an FI score theoretically between 0 and 1, with higher scores denoting more frailty. Male 3xTg-AD mice aged 300–600 days had higher FI scores (Mean FI = 0.21 ± 0.03) than either male WT (Mean FI = 0.15 ± 0.01) or female 3xTg-AD mice (Mean FI = 0.10 ± 0.01), and the elevated frailty scores were accompanied by parallel increases in mortality. Frailty increased exponentially with age, and higher rates of deficit accumulation elevated mortality risk in all groups of mice. When mice were stratified by FI score, frailty predicted mortality, at least in females. Therefore, the mouse clinical FI provides a valuable tool for evaluating healthspan in mouse models of AD with different lifespans.
A common epitope region of enteroviruses was identified by sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA), followed by immunoscreening of 11 cDNA libraries from two Korean enterovirus isolates (echoviruses 7 and 30) and a coxsackievirus B3 (ATCC-VR 30). The putative common epitope region was localized in the N terminus of VP1 when the displayed recombinant proteins from the phages were chased by the convalescent-phase sera. The genomic region encoding the common epitope region was amplified and then expressed by using the vector pGEX-5X-1. The antigenicity of the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blotting with guinea pig antisera for six different serotypes of enteroviruses. After successive immunization of mice with the recombinant common epitope protein, splenocytes were extracted and hybridized with P3X63-Ag8-653 cells. A total of 24 hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the putative common epitope of enteroviruses were selected. Four of these were immunoglobulin G1 isotypes with a kappa light chain. These MAbs recognized 15 Korean endemic serotypes and prototypes of enteroviruses in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. These results suggest that the expressed protein might be a useful antigen for producing group common antibodies and that the use of the MAbs against the putative common epitope of enteroviruses might be a valuable diagnostic tool for rapidly identifying a broad range of enteroviruses.The genus Enterovirus, belonging to the family Picornaviridae, consists of 66 different subtypes, including polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus group A (CVA) and CVB, echoviruses, and the numbered enteroviruses. These viruses cause a wide variety of clinical illnesses, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal, including poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis, myopericarditis, and respiratory, hepatic, and gastrointestinal infections (15,23,24). Thus, the early diagnosis of enterovirus-related infection from various clinical isolates is important for prognostic, therapeutic, and epidemiologic purposes (1,14,18,26).The primary structure and genetic organization of enteroviruses have been demonstrated recently. Conserved sequences are located in structural and nonstructural proteins of enteroviruses (12,28,29,31,35,39). Therefore, it may be possible to use the conserved region as a common epitope for the serological diagnosis of enteroviruses. The synthetic peptides for the enterovirus group-common epitope could be used for the serological diagnosis of infections caused by a broad range of enteroviruses (3, 25). However, these approaches have not yet been proven effective for the routine laboratory diagnosis of enteroviral antigens in clinical specimens. Thus, it would be useful to develop a rapid and reliable antigen diagnostic method for enteroviral infection by using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the common epitope region.In the present study, the genetic region of the putative common epitope of enteroviruses was determined by sequenceindependent single-prim...
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers