BackgroundThe menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil.MethodsThe sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined.ResultsAccording to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19).ConclusionsThis study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among pre-and postmenopausal women, as well as the association between menopausal status and MS. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a reference cardiology outpatient clinic in a city located in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. A total of 958 medical records of symptomatic climacteric women evaluated between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed. The study consisted of two groups: pre-and post-menopausal women. MS was characterized according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III -NCEP-ATP III-2005. Results: MS was observed in 18.5% of the total study population; 9.4% of the premenopausal women and 22.2% of the postmenopausal women displayed MS, corresponding to a relative risk of 2.75. In addition, the frequency of MS increased with age. Regarding the components of MS, postmenopausal women were more likely to have high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels < 50 mg/dL; systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values ≥ 85 mmHg; and fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL. Conclusion: MS was more prevalent among postmenopausal women than among premenopausal women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2017;61(2):160-6.
Background: To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with performance of annual mammography by women above 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at an oncology reference service in Southern Brazil from October 2013 to October 2014 with 525 women aged 40 years or older. Results: The prevalence of annual mammography was 54.1%; annual mammographic screening was performed for women without private medical insurance, who were under hormone replacement therapy and who had used contraception in the past. An association was found between non-performance of breast clinical and self-examination and non-performance of mammographic screening. Conclusions: Use of mammography for breast cancer screening in the public health care setting proved to be accessible; nevertheless, the proportion of screened women was low, and they exhibited poor adherence to the basic measures of care recommended for breast assessment. Thus, control of breast cancer requires implementing actions targeting the population most vulnerable to non-adherence to screening in addition to continuously monitoring and assessing that population to reduce the prevalence of this disease.
Objective. To investigate and compare aspects of breast cancer in young women (<40 years old) with older women (>40 years old). Methods. Retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical, and exploratory study based on data from 2009 to 2012 obtained from the Breast Cancer Information System (SISMAMA) and the Unified Health System Information Data (DATASUS). The studied population consisted of women (n=31.195) with malignant breast cancer. The analysed variables were education level, race, nodule detection at the clinical examination or image studies, presence of palpable axillary lymph nodes, surgical approach, and tumor histological type and grade. Results. There was increasing detection of breast cancer cases in young women among the studied years. Young women had more palpable lymph nodes (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39), ductal carcinoma as the most frequent histologic type (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.53), and grades II and III tumor (OR 16.01 , 95% CI: 13.30 to 19.28 ). The lesion detection by clinical examination was higher in women <40 years (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.24 to 1.45). Conclusion. Although there are early detection measures related to breast cancer, they are not the usual practice of the young female public, suggesting the need for a review of existing public policies in the country.
RESUMO: Objetivou-se analisar a mortalidade infantil em uma regional de saúde do estado do Paraná, antes e após a implantação do programa Rede Mãe Paranaense. Utilizou-se o método descritivo, retrospectivo com dados secundários dos Sistemas de Informação da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado, com dados de crianças menores de 1 ano e causas de óbitos, entre 2009 e 2014. Observou-se que no período neonatal precoce, houve aumento para o porte populacional entre 15.000 e 50.000 de 31% para 36% óbitos pós-implantação. Apesar da implantação do programa visando à melhoria da atenção à saúde da mulher na gestação, parto e ao recém-nascido, os óbitos evitáveis mantiveram-se elevados, 63% pré-implantação e 51% pós-implantação. Os resultados não evidenciaram redução significativa na mortalidade infantil após a implantação do programa, porém, sua implantação ainda é recente sendo necessário maior tempo para adequações dos municípios em relação ao programa e investimentos nas capacitações dos profissionais envolvidos. DESCRITORES: Mortalidade infantil; Avaliação em saúde; Sistemas de informação em saúde; Causas de morte. The objective was to analyze childhood mortality at a regional health department in the State of Paraná before and after the implementation of the Rede Mãe Paranaense program. The descriptive and retrospective method was used with secondary data from the Information System of the State Secretary of Health, using data from children younger than one year and causes of death, between 2009 and 2014. It was observed that, in the early neonatal period, the population size increased from 15,000 to 50,000, from 31% to 36% of deaths after the implementation. Despite the implementation of the program to improve women's health during pregnancy and birth and infant health, the avoidable deaths remained high, i.e. 63% before and 51% after the implementation. The results did not evidence a significant reduction in childhood mortality after the implementation of the program, but its implementation is still recent, demanding further time for the cities to adapt to the program and invest in the training of the professionals involved. DESCRIPTORS: Infant mortality; Health evaluation; Health information systems; Cause of death. .000 y 50.000 del 31% al 36% de óbitos postimplantación. A pesar de la implantación del programa, visando mejorar la atención de salud de la mujer en el embarazo, parte y al recién-nacido, las muertes evitables siguieron altas, 63% pre-implantación y 51% post-implantación. Los resultados no evidenciaron reducción significativa en la mortalidad infantil después de la implantación del programa. Sin embargo, su implantación es reciente, demandando mayor tiempo para adecuaciones de los municipios con relación al programa e inversiones en las capacitaciones de los profesionales involucrados. DESCRIPTORES: Mortalidad infantil; Evaluación en salud; Sistemas de información en salud; Causas de muerte.
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