As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completedthe RelationshipQuestionnaire(RQ), a self-reportmeasure of adult romanticattachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.
Southern Hemisphere humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae migrate from wintering grounds in tropical latitudes to feeding areas in the Antarctic Ocean. It has been hypothesized that the population wintering off eastern South America migrates to feeding grounds near the Antarctic Peninsula (ca. 65°S, 60°W) and/or South Georgia (54°20' S, 36°40' W), but direct evidence to support this has never been presented. Between 19 and 28 October 2003, 11 humpback whales (7 females and 4 males) were instrumented with satellite transmitters off Brazil (ca. 18°30' S, 39°30' W) to investigate their movements and migratory destinations. Mean tracking time for the whales was 39.6 d (range = 5 to 205 d) and mean distance travelled was 1673 km per whale (range = 60 to 7258 km). Movements on the wintering ground showed marked individual variation. Departure dates from the Brazilian coast ranged from late October to late December. Whales migrated south through oceanic waters at an average heading of 170°and travelled a relatively direct, linear path from wintering to feeding grounds. Two whales were tracked to feeding grounds in offshore areas near South Georgia and in the South Sandwich Islands (58°S, 26°W) after a 40 to 60 d long migration. Historical catches and current sighting information support these migratory routes and destinations. This study is the first to describe the movements of humpback whales in the western South Atlantic Ocean.
BackgroundWhile several studies have identified the anaerobic threshold (AT) through the responses of blood lactate, ventilation and blood glucose others have suggested the response of the heart rate variability (HRV) as a method to identify the AT in young healthy individuals. However, the validity of HRV in estimating the lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT) for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been investigated yet.AimTo analyze the possibility of identifying the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) by considering the responses of parasympathetic indicators during incremental exercise test in type 2 diabetics subjects (T2D) and non diabetics individuals (ND).MethodsNine T2D (55.6 ± 5.7 years, 83.4 ± 26.6 kg, 30.9 ± 5.2 kg.m2(-1)) and ten ND (50.8 ± 5.1 years, 76.2 ± 14.3 kg, 26.5 ± 3.8 kg.m2(-1)) underwent to an incremental exercise test (IT) on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and expired gas concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. HRVT was identified through the responses of root mean square successive difference between adjacent R-R intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) by considering the last 60 s of each incremental stage, and were known as HRVT by RMSSD and SD1 (HRVT-RMSSD and HRVT-SD1), respectively.ResultsNo differences were observed within groups for the exercise intensities corresponding to LT, VT, HRVT-RMSSD and HHVT-SD1. Furthermore, a strong relationship were verified among the studied parameters both for T2D (r = 0.68 to 0.87) and ND (r = 0.91 to 0.98) and the Bland & Altman technique confirmed the agreement among them.ConclusionThe HRVT identification by the proposed autonomic indicators (SD1 and RMSSD) were demonstrated to be valid to estimate the LT and VT for both T2D and ND.
The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify the lactate threshold (LT) and glucose threshold (GT) on resistance exercise for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nine men with type 2 diabetes (47.2 +/- 12.4 years, 87.6 +/- 20.0 kg, 174.9 +/- 5.9 cm, and 22.4 +/- 7.2% body fat) performed incremental tests (ITs) on the leg press (LP) and bench press (BP) at relative intensities of 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) at each 1-minute stage. During the 2-minute interval between stages, 25 mul of capillary blood were collected from the earlobe for blood lactate [Lac] and blood glucose [Gluc] analysis (YSI 2700S). The LT in the LP and BP was identified at IT by the inflexion in [Lac] response as well as by an equation originated from a polynomial adjustment (LTp) of the [Lac]/% 1RM ratio responses. The lowest [Gluc] during the IT identified the GT. The analysis of variance did not show differences among the 1RM at the thresholds identified by different methods in the LP (LTLP = 31.0% +/- 5.3% 1RM; GTLP = 32.1% +/- 6.1% 1RM; LTpLP = 36.7% +/- 5.6% 1RM; p > 0.05) and BP (LTBP = 29.9% +/- 8.5% 1RM; GTBP = 32.1% +/- 8.5% 1RM; LTpBP = 31.8% +/- 6.7% 1RM; p > 0.05). It was concluded that it was possible to identify the LT and GT in resistance exercise by different methods for individuals with type 2 diabetes with no differences between them. The intensities (kg) corresponding to these thresholds were between 46% and 60% of the body weight on the LP and between 18% and 26% of the body weight on the BP, in which the exercise prescription would be done to this intensity in 3 sets of 20 to 30 repetitions each and 1 minute of rest while alternating the muscle groups for blood glucose control for individuals with characteristics similar to the participants.
BackgroundThe absence of the I allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with higher levels of circulating ACE, lower nitric oxide (NO) release and hypertension. The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-exercise salivary nitrite (NO2-) and blood pressure (BP) responses to different exercise intensities in elderly women divided according to their ACE genotype.MethodsParticipants (n = 30; II/ID = 20 and DD = 10) underwent three experimental sessions: incremental test - IT (15 watts workload increase/3 min) until exhaustion; 20 min exercise 90% anaerobic threshold (90% AT); and 20 min control session without exercise. Volunteers had their BP and NO2- measured before and after experimental sessions.ResultsDespite both intensities showed protective effect on preventing the increase of BP during post-exercise recovery compared to control, post-exercise hypotension and increased NO2- release was observed only for carriers of the I allele (p < 0.05).ConclusionGenotypes of the ACE gene may exert a role in post-exercise NO release and BP response.
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