Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcomas can be improved by computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanning. Radical surgical resection probably presents the only chance for cure. The role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment modalities has to be defined. Pulmonary artery sarcoma need not necessarily be a fatal diagnosis.
Continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2c) was measured in 16 infants immediately after cardiac surgery. A polyurethane 4F, dual channel catheter (Opticath, Modell U440, Oximetrix) with fiberoptic filaments was introduced into the pulmonary artery during cardiothoracic surgery. The catheters were left in place for an average of 67.5 h (range 27 h -125 h) and there were no catheter-related complications. Correlation between continuous in vivo SvO2 values and in vitro values was satisfactory (r = 0.85), whereas a correlation between SvO2c and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was not found (r = 0.07). The sampled arterial lactate values were inversely correlated to the simultaneously measured SvO2c, but the correlation coefficient was only r = -0.4. There was an inverse correlation between SvO2c and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (Ca-vDO2) (r = -0.82), and a marked inverse correlation to the calculated oxygen utilization ratio (r = -0.97). Therefore SvO2c continuously reflects the overall balance between oxygen consumption and delivery, but the use of SvO2 as a predictor of blood lactate levels is unreliable. A further purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the clinical applications and to show the usefulness of SvO2c-monitoring; particularly as a surveillance and early warning system, as a guide for assessing therapy and its relevance in interpreting other monitored parameters. In our opinion continuous SvO2 measurement is a reliable and valuable indicator of cardiopulmonary function in the immediate post-operative period, even in infants with complicated repair of cardiac malformations.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative pulmonary supravalvular stenosis in patients with d-TGA and to assess the rate of success or failure of balloon angioplasty. Out of 70 patients with d-TGA 67 patients underwent successful arterial switch operation. Twelve children developed severe supravalvular pulmonary stenosis with a peak gradient above 50 mmHg (range: 50-120 mmHg). In these patients 19 high pressure dilatations were performed up to a diameter of 130% of the native valve dimension. The mean age at angioplasty was 17 months (range: 3-36 months). Successful intervention was defined as a > 50% decrease of predilatation peak pressure gradient or right ventricular pressure < 50 mmHg. Dilatations were performed without complications. Complete resolution was primarily achieved in 1 patient. In 7 patients the pressure gradients could be reduced to 10-45 mmHg (mean: 25 mmHg). In another two patients a palliative stent-implantation into the pulmonary trunk was necessary to reduce the pressure gradient. Because unsuccessful intervention, two patients needed subsequent operation. During follow-up of 6-9 months after intervention severe restenosis occurred in 3 patients (2 after stent-implantation; 1 after re-re-dilatation) who then also needed operation. Balloon dilatation should be the first treatment in patients with pulmonary stenosis after ASO in TGA owing to the low complication rate and the potential benefit of this procedure. Recurrent and combined stenoses with narrow pulmonary valve annulus should be treated surgically.
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