Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is a novel regenerative approach for treating tendinopathy. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (allo-ASC) in treating lateral epicondylosis (LE). Under ultrasound guidance, allo-ASCs mixed with fibrin glue were injected into the hypoechoic common extensor tendon lesions of 12 participants with chronic LE; 6 subjects each were administered 10 6 or 10 7 cells in 1 ml. Safety was evaluated at day 3 and weeks 2, 6, 12, 26, and 52 post-injection. Efficacy was assessed by measuring patients' visual analog scale (VAS) score for elbow pain, modified Mayo clinic performance index for the elbow, and by evaluating longitudinal and transverse ultrasound images of tendon defect areas after 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. No significant adverse effects of allo-ASC injection were observed through 52 weeks of follow-up. From baseline through 52 weeks of periodic follow-up, VAS scores progressively decreased from 66.8 6 14.5 mm to 14.8 6 13.1 mm and elbow performance scores improved from 64.0 6 13.5 to 90.6 6 5.8. Tendon defects also significantly decreased through this period. Allo-ASC therapy was thus safe and effective in improving elbow pain, performance, and structural defects for 52 weeks. This clinical study is the first to reveal therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cell injection for treating chronic tendinopathy. STEM CELLS 2015;33:2995-3005
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTClinical use of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of tendinopathy has not been well studied because it may be related to the invasive procedures required to obtain autologous stem cells. Allogeneic stem cells may be an optimal treatment option for tendinopathy, if safety and efficacy can be conclusively demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis of 12 participants. No significant adverse effects of allogeneic stem cells were observed through 52 weeks of follow-up. Elbow pain, performance scores, and tendon defects area measured by ultrasound improved through this period. This clinical study is the first to reveal therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cell injection for treating chronic tendinopathy.
Japan 11 Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has casted a huge impact on global public health and economy. In this challenging situation, older people are vulnerable to the infection and the secondary effects of the pandemic and need special attentions. To evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on older people, it is important to balance the successful pandemic control and active management of secondary consequences. These considerations are especially salient in the Asian context, with its diversity among countries in terms of sociocultural heritage, healthcare setup and availability of resources. Thus, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia summarized the considerations of Asian countries focusing on responses and difficulties in each country, impacts of health inequity related to COVID-19 pandemic and proposed recommendations for older people which are germane to the Asian context. More innovative services should be developed to address the increasing demands for new approaches to deliver health care in the difficult times and to establish resilient health care systems for older people.
It is essential to control the electronic structure of graphene in order to apply graphene films for use in electrodes. We have introduced chemical dopants that modulate the electronic properties of few-layer graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The work function, sheet carrier density, mobility, and sheet resistance of these films were systematically modulated by the reduction potential values of dopants. We further demonstrated that the power generation of a nanogenerator was strongly influenced by the choice of a graphene electrode with a modified work function. The off-current was well quenched in graphene films with high work functions (Au-doped) due to the formation of high Schottky barrier heights, whereas leakage current was observed in graphene films with low work functions (viologen-doped), due to nearly ohmic contact.
ObjectiveTo evaluate sarcopenic indices in relation to respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in elderly people.MethodsThis study included 65 volunteers over the age of 60 (30 men and 35 women). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was measured using bioimpedance analysis. Limb muscle function was assessed by handgrip strength (HGS), the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and gait speed. RMS was addressed by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) using a spirometer. The relationships between RMS and other sarcopenic indices were investigated using the Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, HGS, and SPPB.ResultsBoth MIP and MEP were positively correlated with SMI (r=0.451 and r=0.388, respectively, p<0.05 in both). HGS showed a significant correlation with both MIP and MEP (r=0.560, p<0.01 and r=0.393, p<0.05, respectively). There was no significant correlation between gait speed and either MIP or MEP. The SPPB was positively correlated with MEP (r=0.436, p<0.05). In the multiple regression analysis, MIP was significantly associated with HGS and SMI (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), while MEP was related only with HGS (p<0.05).ConclusionThis study suggests that respiratory muscles, especially inspiratory muscles, are significantly related to limb muscle strength and skeletal muscle mass. The clinical significance of MIP and MEP should be further investigated with prospective studies.
This paper presents a data-driven approach that leverages reinforcement learning to manage the optimal energy consumption of a smart home with a rooftop solar photovoltaic system, energy storage system, and smart home appliances. Compared to existing model-based optimization methods for home energy management systems, the novelty of the proposed approach is as follows: (1) a model-free Q-learning method is applied to energy consumption scheduling for an individual controllable home appliance (air conditioner or washing machine), as well as the energy storage system charging and discharging, and (2) the prediction of the indoor temperature using an artificial neural network assists the proposed Q-learning algorithm in learning the relationship between the indoor temperature and energy consumption of the air conditioner accurately. The proposed Q-learning home energy management algorithm, integrated with the artificial neural network model, reduces the consumer electricity bill within the preferred comfort level (such as the indoor temperature) and the appliance operation characteristics. The simulations illustrate a single home with a solar photovoltaic system, an air conditioner, a washing machine, and an energy storage system with the time-of-use pricing. The results show that the relative electricity bill reduction of the proposed algorithm over the existing optimization approach is 14%.
One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies-globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly-peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of field stellar population, and -2if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the HST ACS/WFC, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our discussion to R R e for giant ellipticals and 10 R e for normal ellipticals, our findings suggest that GC systems and their parent galaxies have shared a more common origin than previously thought, and hence greatly simplify theories of galaxy formation.
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