Abstract-We consider a multi-cluster, multi-hop packet radio network architecture for wireless systems which can dynamically adapt itself with the changing network configurations. Due to the dynamic nature of the mobile nodes, their association and dissociation to and from clusters perturb the stability of the system, and hence a reconfiguration of the system is unavoidable. At the same time it is vital to keep the topology stable as long as possible. The clusterheads, which form a dominant set in the network, decide the topology and are responsible for its stability. In this paper, we propose a weighted clustering algorithm (WCA) which takes into consideration the ideal degree, transmission power, mobility and battery power of a mobile node. We try to keep the number of nodes in a cluster around a pre-defined threshold to facilitate the optimal operation of the medium access control (MAC) protocol. Our clusterhead election procedure is not periodic as in earlier research, hut adapts based on the dynamism of the nodes. This on-demand execution of WCA aims to maintain the stability of the network, thus lowering the computation and communication costs associated with it. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of WCA in terms of the number of clusterheads, reaflliation frequency and dominant set updates. Results show that the WCA performs better than the existing algorithms and is also tunable to different types of ad hoc networks.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective solution for a wide range of applications. Most of the traditional WSN architectures consist of static nodes which are densely deployed over a sensing area. Recently, several WSN architectures based on mobile elements (MEs) have been proposed. Most of them exploit mobility to address the problem of data collection in WSNs. In this article we first define WSNs with MEs and provide a comprehensive taxonomy of their architectures, based on the role of the MEs. Then we present an overview of the data collection process in such a scenario, and identify the corresponding issues and challenges. On the basis of these issues, we provide an extensive survey of the related literature. Finally, we compare the underlying approaches and solutions, with hints to open problems and future research directions.
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