Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that derivatization of the carboxylate moiety in substrate analogue inhibitors, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as indomethacin and meclofenamic acid, results in the generation of potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (Kalgutkar et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000, 97, 925-930). This paper summarizes details of the structure-activity studies involved in the transformation of the arylacetic acid NSAID, indomethacin, into a COX-2-selective inhibitor. Many of the structurally diverse indomethacin esters and amides inhibited purified human COX-2 with ICo5 values in the low-nanomolar range but did not inhibit ovine COX-1 activity at concentrations as high as 66 microM. Primary and secondary amide analogues of indomethacin were more potent as COX-2 inhibitors than the corresponding tertiary amides. Replacement of the 4-chlorobenzoyl group in indomethacin esters or amides with the 4-bromobenzyl functionality or hydrogen afforded inactive compounds. Likewise, exchanging the 2-methyl group on the indole ring in the ester and amide series with a hydrogen also generated inactive compounds. Inhibition kinetics revealed that indomethacin amides behave as slow, tight-binding inhibitors of COX-2 and that selectivity is a function of the time-dependent step. Conversion of indomethacin into ester and amide derivatives provides a facile strategy for generating highly selective COX-2 inhibitors and eliminating the gastrointestinal side effects of the parent compound.
All nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes to different extents, which accounts for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and their gastrointestinal side effects. We have exploited biochemical differences between the two COX enzymes to identify a strategy for converting carboxylate-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors. Derivatization of the carboxylate moiety in moderately selective COX-1 inhibitors, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and arylacetic and fenamic acid NSAIDs, exemplified by indomethacin and meclofenamic acid, respectively, generated potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors. In the indomethacin series, esters and primary and secondary amides are superior to tertiary amides as selective inhibitors. Only the amide derivatives of ETYA and meclofenamic acid inhibit COX-2; the esters are either inactive or nonselective. Inhibition kinetics reveal that indomethacin amides behave as slow, tight-binding inhibitors of COX-2 and that selectivity is a function of the time-dependent step. Site-directed mutagenesis of murine COX-2 indicates that the molecular basis for selectivity differs from the parent NSAIDs and from diarylheterocycles. Selectivity arises from novel interactions at the opening and at the apex of the substrate-binding site. Lead compounds in the present study are potent inhibitors of COX-2 activity in cultured inflammatory cells. Furthermore, indomethacin amides are orally active, nonulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory agents in an in vivo model of acute inflammation. Expansion of this approach can be envisioned for the modification of all carboxylic acid-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors.
The uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) belong to a superfamily of enzymes that catalyse the glucuronidation of numerous endobiotics and xenobiotics. Several human hepatic and extrahepatic UGT isozymes have been characterized with respect to their substrate specificity, tissue expression and gene structure. Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for almost all the UGT family members. A wide variety of anticancer drugs, dietary chemopreventives and carcinogens are known to be conjugated by members of both UGT1A and UGT2B subfamilies. This review examines in detail each UGT isozyme known to be associated with cancer and carcinogenesis. The cancer-related substrates for several UGTs are summarized, and the functionally relevant genetic polymorphisms of UGTs are reviewed. A number of genotype-phenotype association studies have been carried out to characterize the role of UGT pharmacogenetics in several types of cancer, and these examples are discussed here. In summary, this review focuses on the role of the human UGT genetic polymorphisms in carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and cancer risk.
The culture of primary hepatocytes as spheroids creates an efficient three-dimensional tissue construct for hepatic studies in vitro. Spheroids possess structural polarity and functional bile canaliculi with normal differentiated function. Thus, hepatocyte spheroids have been proposed as the cell source in a variety of diagnostic, discovery, and therapeutic applications, such as a bioartificial liver. Using a novel rocking technique to induce spheroid formation, kinetics of spheroid formation, cell-cell adhesion, gene expression, and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte spheroids were tested over 14 days of culture. Evidence was provided that the formation of spheroids occurred faster and with fewer nonadherent hepatocytes in rocked suspension culture compared to a traditional rotational system. Hepatocyte spheroids in rocked culture showed stable expression of more than 80% of 242 liver-related genes including those of albumin synthesis, urea cycle, phase I and II metabolic enzymes, and clotting factors. Biochemical activity of rocked spheroid hepatocytes was superior to monolayer culture of hepatocytes on tissue culture plastic and collagen. N ovel systems are needed to facilitate short-term and long-term culture of hepatocytes for diagnostic, discovery, and therapeutic applications. 1 Traditional monolayer culture of primary hepatocytes on tissue culture plastic is problematic and has been associated with a rapid loss of differentiated function. 2 Although single-layer and double-layer surfaces of collagen or other biomatrix materials are associated with improved differentiated functions in vitro, 3 biological surfaces can pose manufacturing hurdles and do not support high cell density culture of primary hepatocytes (exceeding 1 ϫ 10 7 cell/mL). In contrast, spheroids, which are nonadherent multicell aggregates of greater than 40 m diameter, provide a three-dimensional tissue construct which form spontaneously and allow suspension culture of primary hepatocytes at high cell density under oxygenated bioreactor conditions. 4 Spheroid formation allows recapitulation of the cuboidal geometry of primary hepatocytes with relatively stable long-term differentiated function. 5,6 Reports of structural polarity and bile canaliculi formation by primary rat hepatocytes in spheroid aggregates provide further evidence that hepatic spheroids mimic the hepatocellular microanatomy of the liver. 7 Original observations of tissue-like aggregate formation from isolated cells was reported by Moscona in 1961, using fetal liver cells and a rotational technique. 8 The descriptive term "spheroid" was coined years later by Landry in 1985 when multicellular aggregates were formed from isolated rat hepatocytes after 3-5 days of culture on nonadherent plastic surfaces. 9 Later, spheroids
Pregnancy increases LTG clearance by >50%. This effect occurs early in pregnancy and reverts quickly after delivery. LTG levels should be monitored before, during, and after pregnancy.
We previously reported that tacrolimus (TAC) trough blood concentrations for African American (AA) kidney allograft recipients were lower than those observed in white patients. Subtherapeutic TAC troughs may be associated with acute rejection (AR) and AR-associated allograft failure. This variation in TAC troughs is due, in part, to differences in the frequency of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, expresses nonfunctional enzyme) between white and AA recipients; however, even after accounting for this variant, variability in AA-associated troughs is significant. We conducted a genomewide association study of TAC troughs in AA kidney allograft recipients to search for additional genetic variation. We identified two additional CYP3A5 variants in AA recipients independently associated with TAC troughs: CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343). All three variants and clinical factors account for 53.9% of the observed variance in troughs, with 19.8% of the variance coming from demographic and clinical factors including recipient age, glomerular filtration rate, anti-cytomegalovirus drug use, simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant and antibody induction. There was no evidence of common genetic variants in AA recipients significantly influencing TAC troughs aside from the CYP3A gene. These results reveal that additional and possibly rare functional variants exist that account for the additional variation.
We have developed a novel bioreactor based on the observation that isolated porcine hepatocytes rapidly and spontaneously aggregate into spheroids under oscillation conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of oscillation frequency (0.125 Hz, 0.25 Hz), cell density (1-10 ؋ 10 6 cells/mL), and storage condition (fresh, cryopreserved) of porcine hepatocytes on the kinetics of spheroid formation. The viability and metabolic performance of spheroid hepatocytes was also compared to monolayer culture. We observed that both fresh and cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes began formation of spheroids spontaneously at the onset of oscillation culture. Spheroid size was directly related to cell density and time in culture, though inversely related to oscillatory frequency. Spheroid formation by fresh porcine hepatocytes was associated with decreased cell death (lactate dehydrogenase release, 1.3 ؎ 1.0 vs. 3.1 ؎ 0.7 U/mL, P < 0.05) and increased metabolic performance (albumin production, 14.7 ؎ 3.3 vs. 4.6 ؎ 1.4 fg/c/h, P < 0.0001; ureagenesis from ammonia, 267 ؎ 63 vs. 92 ؎ 13 mol/ L/h, P < 0.001) compared with monolayer culture. In conclusion, based on the favorable properties of rapid spheroid formation, increased hepatocellular function, and ease of scale-up, the spheroid reservoir bioreactor warrants further investigation as a bioartificial liver for support of liver failure. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:901-910.)
Mycophenolate mofetil is used increasingly to provide immunosuppression after nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. There is wide variability in the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite, and low concentrations are associated with rejection after organ transplantation. We hypothesized that low MPA was associated with poorer engraftment and a higher incidence of acute graft versus host disease. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics in 87 adult subjects undergoing nonmyeloablative-related and nonmyeloablative-unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who were receiving 1 g mycophenolate mofetil orally or intravenously every 12 hours plus cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin). Subjects with an unbound MPA area under the curve (AUC) from 0 to 6 hours of less than 150 ng . h/mL had a higher cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease than subjects with a greater AUC (68% versus 40%, P = .02). An unbound AUC from 0 to 12 hours of less than 300 ng . h/mL was also associated with more frequent acute graft versus host disease (58% versus 35%, P = .05). There was no association between graft versus host disease and trough concentrations (P < or = .62). A higher cumulative incidence of engraftment was associated with total MPA trough concentrations greater than 1 microg/mL (P < .01). All engraftment failures occurred in the cord blood recipients. About one half of subjects were below the unbound AUC target after oral dosing with nearly a 5-fold variability in AUC. Intravenous dosing achieved unbound targets better than oral dosing. The current practice of dosing with 1 g twice daily provides inadequate plasma concentrations in many patients, and doses of at least 3 g/d are likely necessary. Therapeutic monitoring of MPA concentrations with dose adjustment into the therapeutic target appears to be necessary for the most effective use of mycophenolate mofetil.
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