Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.
Drought is one of the major problems worldwide. The search for new and efficient microorganisms, from unexplored environments, to be used in association with plants to alleviate the negative effects imposed by water stress, is an interesting alternative. Thus, cacti-associated bacteria from the Brazilian semi-arid region were isolated based on their ability to grow in medium with reduced water availability. Strains were tested for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), as well as in vitro plant growth promotion traits. A great proportion of the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. From a total of forty-eight bacteria, 65% were able to grow in medium with reduced water availability (0.919Aw), exopolysaccharide production was observed for 65% of the strains. The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) exceeding 51μgmL(-1) was observed for 4% and the high solubilization of Ca-P was verified for 6% of the isolates. No strain was able to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 71% produced ammonia and 79% showed a halo of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation. Zea mays L. growth promotion under water stress (30% of field capacity) was achieved by two strains of Bacillus spp. This is the first report to describe cacti-associated bacteria from Brazilian semi-arid with plant growth-promoting abilities.
Abstract:The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production. The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I-"Slash-andBurn") the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II-"Anthropogenic Soil"), the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), black carbon (BC) and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU) richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria-24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria-10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria-7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes-3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest OPEN ACCESSDiversity 2010, 2 788 that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the microbes.
Mangrove sediments are anaerobic ecosystems rich in organic matter. This environment is optimal for anaerobic microorganisms, such as sulphate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea, which are responsible for nutrient cycling. In this study, the diversity of these two functional guilds was evaluated in a pristine mangrove forest using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library sequencing in a 50 cm vertical profile sampled every 5.0 cm. DGGE profiles indicated that both groups presented higher richness in shallow samples (0-30 cm) with a steep decrease in richness beyond that depth. According to redundancy analysis, this alteration significantly correlated with a decrease in the amount of organic matter. Clone library sequencing indicated that depth had a strong effect on the selection of dissimilatory sulphate reductase (dsrB) operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as indicated by the small number of shared OTUs found in shallow (0.0 cm) and deep (40.0 cm) libraries. On the other hand, methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) libraries indicated that most of the OTUs found in the shallow library were present in the deep library. These results show that these two guilds co-exist in these mangrove sediments and indicate important roles for these organisms in nutrient cycling within this ecosystem.
In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the microbial communities in mangrove sediments with different chemical and historical characteristics respond differently to the disturbance of a hydrocarbon spill. Two different mangrove sediments were sampled, one close to an oil refinery that had suffered a recent oil spill and another that had not been in contact with oil. Based on the sampled sediment, two sets of mesocosms were built, and oil was added to one of them. They were subjected to mimicked mangrove conditions and monitored for 75 days. Archaeal and bacterial communities were evaluated through PCR-DGGE. Both communities showed the emergence of small numbers of novel bands in response to oil pollution. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from both mesocosms before the addition of oil and at day 75 after oil addition. LIBSHUFF analysis showed that both mangrove-based mesocosms contained similar communities at the start of the experiment and that they were different from the initial one, as well as from each other, after 75 days. These results hint at a role of environmental history that is not obvious from community diversity indicators, but is apparent from the response to the applied stress.
The rhizosphere is viewed as a deterministic environment led by the interaction between plants and microorganisms. In the case of semi-arid plants, this interaction is strengthened by the harshness of the environment. We tested the hypothesis that dry season represents a constraint on the bacterial diversity of the rhizosphere from semi-arid plants. To accomplish this, we sampled two leguminous species at five locations during the dry and rainy seasons in the Caatinga biome and characterised bacterial community structures using qPCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that the main differences between seasons were due to reduced phylogenetic diversity caused by dryness. Variation partitioning indicated that environmental characteristics significant impacts in β-diversity. Additionally, distance decay relationship and taxa area relationship indicate a higher spatial turnover at the rainy season. During the dry season, decreased bacterial abundance is likely due to the selection of resistant or resilient microorganisms; with the return of the rain, the sensitive populations start to colonise the rhizosphere by a process that is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics. Thus, we propose that the reduction of PD and strong influence of environmental parameters on the assemblage of these communities make them prone to functional losses caused by climatic disturbances.
Purpose This study evaluates the presence and diversity of 16S rRNA (rrs) and amoA genes from archaea in three mangrove sediments under different stages of preservation (one pristine mangrove, one affected by anthropogenic activity, and another contaminated by an oil spill) in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Materials and methods A combination of DGGE, coupled with ordination analysis, and clone libraries of both targeted genes (rrs and amoA) was used to infer the diversity and phylogeny of archaeal communities in the mangrove analyzed samples.
Soil from the Amazonian region is usually regarded as unsuitable for agriculture because of its low organic matter content and low pH; however, this region also contains extremely rich soil, the Terra Preta Anthrosol. A diverse archaeal community usually inhabits acidic soils, such as those found in the Amazon. Therefore, we hypothesized that this community should be sensitive to changes in the environment. Here, the archaeal community composition of Terra Preta and adjacent soil was examined in four different sites in the Brazilian Amazon under different anthropic activities. The canonical correspondence analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms has shown that the archaeal community structure was mostly influenced by soil attributes that differentiate the Terra Preta from the adjacent soil (i.e., pH, sulfur, and organic matter). Archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that the two most abundant genera in both soils were Candidatus nitrosphaera and Canditatus nitrosocaldus. An ammonia monoxygenase gene (amoA) clone library analysis indicated that, within each site, there was no significant difference between the clone libraries of Terra Preta and adjacent soils. However, these clone libraries indicated there were significant differences between sites. Quantitative PCR has shown that Terra Preta soils subjected to agriculture displayed a higher number of amoA gene copy numbers than in adjacent soils. On the other hand, soils that were not subjected to agriculture did not display significant differences on amoA gene copy numbers between Terra Preta and adjacent soils. Taken together, our findings indicate that the overall archaeal community structure in these Amazonian soils is determined by the soil type and the current land use.
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