THELennox and Colidge (a) examined preoperative EEGs and postoperative EEGs from 1 day to 1 year on 48 lobotomized patients. They observed diffuse slowing, predominantly in the frontal lobes, after lobotomy. The amount of slowing tended to decrease within the first 2 months after the operation.Three phases in the evolution of the postlobotomy EEG over a 20-year postoperative period were observed by P~i r e '~) .Phase one is a period of diffuse EEG destructuralization. This phase occurs during the immediate postoperative period while the patient still is confused. Phase two differentiates between improved and unimproved Ss. In the unimproved Ss, the EEGs present "flat" prefrontal traces. The EEG patterns of improved Ss, on the other hand, are reconstructed parallel with the regression of the mental confusion. In the third, or "tardy" phase, mental deterioration is accompanied by slow, polymorphic prefrontal traces.However, it should be noted that all of the above-cited EEG studies were done on the basis of a visual inspection of the EEG records. Woody(') examined the intrajudge reliability of clinical interpretations of EEG pen tracings, a judgment that involves an attempt to determine the frequency components present. He found that highly qualified interpreters of the EEG were "inconsistent" in their ability to repeat their judgments. Woody made the point that his results argued for the use of electronic analyzers in electroencephalographic work.The present study compared the frequency components of the ongoing EEGs of lobotomized Ss with those of unoperated controls. A frequency analyzer, computer of average transients, and other electronic equipment were employed in order to place the comparisons on a quantitative as opposed t o a judgmental basis. METHODSubjects. Two groups of 7 Ss were employed, all of whom were patients at Central State Hospital in Milledgeville, Georgia. None of the patients had any known neurological dysfunction, with the exception of the sequelae of the lobotomies that had been performed on the experimental group. A yoked-control design was employed, and the two groups were matched for sex, age, race, and I& as determined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (see Table 1). The 7 Ss in the experimental group had been given transorbital lobotomies of the Freeman and Watts type. All of the operations had been performed during a $-year period between 1950 and 1954; that is, approximately 16 or more years prior to the collection of these data. The members of the control group never had been subjected to any form of brain surgery. All 14 Ss received no medication known or suspected to influence the EEG for at least 3 days prior to their participation in the study.Apparatus. The EEG signals were amplified with a Grass Model 6A5 amplifier. These signals then were fed to a dual-channel, on-line, active band-pass filter system that separated the raw signals into the three conventional EEG bands:
A question emerging from a review of the application of the semantic differential to the electoral process concerns whether a candidate's image is stimulus- or perceiver-determined, does a candidate have an image agreed upon by both his supporters and opponents or is a candidate viewed in one way by his supporters and in an entirely different way by others? The answer to this question should depend on the particular scales employed. The present study isolated a pool of stimulus-determined and a pool of perceiver-determined items. When applied to the 1972 Presidential Election, on the stimulus-determined scales both McGovern and Nixon supporters agreed on the characteristics of the two candidates but disagreed on which characteristics an “Ideal” President should possess. On the perceiver-determined scales, on the other hand, there was agreement on an “Ideal” President but disagreement about which candidate had these traits.
Data relating to the effects of structured versus unstructured interventions with three couples are presented and compared. Arguments are presented for the standard use of: 1) routine, pre‐ post‐intervention assessment, 2) laboratory procedures in the assessment and treatment of couples, and 3) paraprofessionals in intervention with couples. This report is part of a systematic program of research into the appropriate use of structured and unstructured intervention and into the optimal matching of client family and intervention approach.
The m e n t statue of intellectual assessment is reviewed. Traditional psychometric techniques are criticized for yielding only a single score that purportg to measure the individual's intellectual ability. Such a unified score gives no indication of what specific deficit is present, nor does it suggest a strategy for remediation. The AVOM Test is presented as a potentially useful device.This experimental test measures performance in two input channels, auditory and visual, and two output channels, oral and manual. AVOM was sdministered to over 200 elementary school students. Scores increased with age, and the other results were supportive of the potential utility of the device.The purpose of this paper is to present an age-limited (9-10-11 years), modalityrelated (Auditory-Visual-Oral-Manual) measure of cognitive functioning that was finally constructed to test directly a psgchodiagnostic model based on information processing proposed originally by L'Abate (1969). Early tests of this model were made by a hodgepodge of already existing techniques (L'Abate, 1971) that were indirectly and unsatisfactorily related to the model itself. On the basis of these unclear and unsatisfactory results, it becomes important to construct a modelderived test that would directly test its validity.There are several problems with existing theories of intelligence (Guilford, 1956; Spearman, 1904; Thurstone, 1938). First of all, no single theory can account for all of the data concerning intellectual abilities. Secondly, and most importantly, tests derived from these theories are of little or no utility in specifying rehabilitative techniques that are appropriate for various intellective deficiencies. Bateman (1963) listed a number of very convincing reasons for her conclusion that the use of a single I& score, the usual outcome of traditional psychometric devices, is inadequate for specifying the appropriate rehabilitation techniques. She cited a case study in which a child was found to be deficient in the reception of visual stimuli and in motor expression. Substantial improvements in the child's functioning were observed following specific tutoring in these problem areas. Obviously, a unitary I& measure could not have yielded this valuable information.A great deal of concern among intelligence researchers has been devoted to the presence of a general factor and to the verbal-nonverbal distinction. As undeniably important as both areas may be (or have been), we submit instead that a much more important distinction has been neglected by investigators and clinicians alike (Cancro, 1971;Eysenck, 1973;Hunt, 1972;Riegel, 1973; Sattler, 1975), and that is: the reception, recognition or input, and decoding vs. expression, cncoding, and performance that has received much more attention from linguists (Chomski, 1Ap reciation is extended to the officials of the Atlanta Public School System for their moperation wi g this study, as well as to the student0 who helped us with the collection and scoring of the &a, especially Janet Campbell, Bpnnie...
The Thumin Conservatism-Liberalism Scale was administered to 30 students and to 30 non-students. As in Thumin's original sample, the students obtained a mean score very close to the scale's absolute center. However, the non-student group made significantly more conservative scores. These findings suggest that students are liberal on a relative basis and that identifying the center of the Thumin scale with the middle of the political spectrum may be unjustified.
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