The current novel coronavirus (nCoV) pandemic, COVID-19, was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally, causing startling loss of life, stalling the global economy, and disrupting social life. One of the challenges to contain COVID-19 is convincing people to adopt personal hygiene, social distancing, and self-quarantine practices that are related to knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the residents of respective countries. Bangladesh, a densely populated country with a fast-growing economy and moderate literacy rate, has shown many hiccups in its efforts to implement COVID-19 policies. Understanding KAP may help policy makers produce informed decisions. This study assessed KAP in relation to COVID-19 in Bangladesh. An online survey using a pre-tested questionnaire conducted in late March 2020 attained 1,837 responses across Bangladesh. Ultimately, 1,589 completed responses were included in a statistical analysis to calculate KAP scores and their interrelations with sociodemographic variables. The overall KAP was poor, with only 33% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge, whereas 52.4% and 44.8% of the subjects showed good attitudes and practices, respectively. Sociodemographic factors had strong bearings on the KAP scores. Significantly higher KAP scores were evident in females over males, among aged 45 years and older over younger participants, and among retired workers and homemakers over students and public service employees. This study indicated a panic fuelled by poor understanding of COVID-19 associated facts and the need for the government to ensure more granular and targeted awareness campaigns in a transparent and factual manner to foster public confidence and ensure more meaningful public participation in mitigation measures. This study provides a KAP baseline regarding COVID-19 among Bangladeshis.
Background: As evidence is mounting regarding irrational and often unnecessary use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic a cross-sectional Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) (in accordance with WHO guideline) was conducted across COVID-19 dedicated wards in Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH). Methodology: Antibiotic usage data were collected from 193 patients at different COVID-19 dedicated wards at DMCH on 11 June 2020. Comparisons in antibiotic usage were made between different groups using Pearson chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Result: Findings reveal all surveyed patients (100%) were receiving at least one antibiotic with 133 patients (68.91%) receiving multiple antibiotics. Overall, patients presenting with the severe disease received more antibiotics. Third-generation cephalosporins (i.e. ceftriaxone) (53.8%), meropenem (40.9%), moxifloxacin (29.5%), and doxycycline (25.4%) were the four most prescribed antibiotics among surveyed patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was independently associated with multiple antibiotic prescribing. Abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum d-dimer were linked with higher odds of multiple antibiotic prescribing among study patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of multiple antibiotic prescriptions was high among severely ill patients and those with abnormal CRP and d-dimer levels. Data regarding the quality of antibiotic prescribing were lacking.
The current novel coronavirus (nCoV) outbreak, COVID-19, was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China has spread all over the world causing startling loss of lives, stalling the global economy and disrupting the social life. One of the challenges to contain the COVID-19 is making people adopt personal hygiene, social distancing and self-quarantine practices which are all related to knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the people in respective countries. Bangladesh, the most densely populated countries with a fast-growing economy and moderate literacy rate, has shown many hiccups in its efforts to implement COVID-19 policies. Understanding KAP may give the policy makers to make informed decisions. Hence, this study aimed to make a quick assessment of KAP of people in relation to COVID-19 in Bangladesh. An online survey using a pre-tested questionnaire conducted in late March 2020 attained 1837 responses across Bangladesh. However, 1589 completed responses were included in statistical analysis to calculate KAP scores, their interrelations with socio-demographic variables. The overall KAP is poor with only 10% of the respondents showed good knowledge with parallel attitudes and practices. Socio-demographic factors have strong bearings on the KAP scores. Significantly higher KAP score is evident in female over male respondents, among aged (45 years and above) over younger respondents and among retired and homemakers above students and public service holders. The study indicated a panic fuelled by poor understanding of COVID-19 associated facts and the need for the government to ensure more granular and targeted awareness campaigns in a transparent and factual manner to gain public confidence and arrest more meaningful public participation in mitigation measures. The study provides a baseline of KAP among people in Bangladesh on COVID-19.
The COVID-19 pandemic presents a significant challenge to wellbeing for people around the world. Here, we examine which individual and societal factors can predict the extent to which individuals suffer or thrive during the COVID-19 outbreak, with survey data collected from 26,684 participants in 51 countries from 17 April to 15 May 2020. We show that wellbeing is linked to an individual’s recent experiences of specific momentary positive and negative emotions, including love, calm, determination, and loneliness. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with better wellbeing. The present study provides a rich map of emotional experiences and wellbeing around the world during the COVID-19 outbreak, and points to calm, connection, and control as central to our wellbeing at this time of collective crisis.
Prospective studies of snake bite patients in Chittagong, Bangladesh, included five cases of bites by greater black kraits (Bungarus niger), proven by examination of the snakes that had been responsible. This species was previously known only from India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma. The index case presented with descending flaccid paralysis typical of neurotoxic envenoming by all Bungarus species, but later developed generalized rhabdomyolysis (peak serum creatine kinase concentration 29,960 units/l) with myoglobinuria and acute renal failure from which he succumbed. Among the other four patients, one died of respiratory paralysis in a peripheral hospital and three recovered after developing paralysis, requiring mechanical ventilation in one patient. One patient suffered severe generalized myalgia and odynophagia associated with a modest increase in serum creatine kinase concentration. These are the first cases of Bungarus niger envenoming to be reported from any country. Generalized rhabdomyolysis has not been previously recognized as a feature of envenoming by any terrestrial Asian elapid snake, but a review of the literature suggests that venoms of some populations of Bungarus candidus and Bungarus multicinctus in Thailand and Vietnam may also have this effect in human victims. To investigate this unexpected property of Bungarus niger venom, venom from the snake responsible for one of the human cases of neuro-myotoxic envenoming was injected into one hind limb of rats and saline into the other under buprenorphine analgesia. All animals developed paralysis of the venom-injected limb within two hours. Twenty-four hours later, the soleus muscles were compared histopathologically and cytochemically. Results indicated a predominantly pre-synaptic action (β-bungarotoxins) of Bungarus niger venom at neuromuscular junctions, causing loss of synaptophysin and the degeneration of the terminal components of the motor innervation of rat skeletal muscle. There was oedema and necrosis of extrafusal muscle fibres in envenomed rat soleus muscles confirming the myotoxic effect of Bungarus niger venom, attributable to phospholipases A₂. This study has demonstrated that Bungarus niger is widely distributed in Bangladesh and confirms the risk of fatal neuro-myotoxic envenoming, especially as no specific antivenom is currently manufactured. The unexpected finding of rhabdomyolysis should prompt further investigation of the venom components responsible. The practical implications of having to treat patients with rhabdomyolysis and consequent acute renal failure, in addition to the more familiar respiratory failure associated with krait bite envenoming, should not be underestimated in a country that is poorly equipped to deal with such emergencies.
BackgroundEpidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH) is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division.MethodsMalaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh.ResultsFrom 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67%) between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period.A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border.ConclusionsThe overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for severe malaria in remote areas and implementation of a referral system for cases requiring additional supportive care could be important contributors to further reducing malaria-attributable disease and death in Bangladesh.
We describe 70 cases of monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Bites were most common in the early morning and evening during the monsoon (May–July). Ligatures were routinely applied to the bitten limb before admission. Thirty-seven patients consulted traditional healers, most of whom made incisions around the bite site. Fifty-eight patients experienced severe neurotoxicity and most suffered swelling and pain of the bitten limb. The use of an Indian polyvalent antivenom in patients exhibiting severe neurotoxicity resulted in clinical improvement but most patients experienced moderate-to-severe adverse reactions. Antivenom did not influence local blistering and necrosis appearing in 19 patients; 12 required debridement. Edrophonium significantly improved the ability of patients to open the eyes, endurance of upward gaze, and peak expiratory flow rate suggesting that a longer-acting anticholinesterase drug (neostigmine) could be recommended for first aid. The study suggested that regionally appropriate antivenom should be raised against the venoms of the major envenoming species of Bangladesh and highlighted the need to improve the training of staff of local medical centers and to invest in the basic health infrastructure in rural communities.
Background The mosquito-borne arboviral disease dengue has become a global public health concern. However, very few studies have reported atypical clinical features of dengue among children. Because an understanding of various spectrums of presentation of dengue is necessary for timely diagnosis and management, we aimed to document the typical and atypical clinical features along with predictors of severity among children with dengue during the largest outbreak in Bangladesh in 2019. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between August 15 and September 30, 2019. in eight tertiary level hospitals in Dhaka city. Children (aged < 15 years) with serologically confirmed dengue were conveniently selected for data collection through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics, and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results Among the 190 children (mean age 8.8 years, and male-female ratio 1.22:1) included in the analysis, respectively 71.1 and 28.9% children had non-severe and severe dengue. All children had fever with an average temperature of 103.3 ± 1.2 F (SD). Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common associated feature, including mostly vomiting (80.4%), decreased appetite (79.5%), constipation (72.7%), and abdominal pain (64.9%). Mouth sore, a less reported feature besides constipation, was present in 28.3% of children. Atypical clinical features were mostly neurological, with confusion (21.3%) being the predominant symptom. Frequent laboratory abnormalities were thrombocytopenia (87.2%), leucopenia (40.4%), and increased hematocrit (13.4%). Age (AOR 0.86, 95%CI 0.75–0.98, p = 0.023), mouth sore (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.06–6.96, p = 0.038) and a decreased platelet count (< 50,000/mm3) with increased hematocrit (> 20%) (AOR 4.94, 95%CI 1.48–17.31, p = 0.01) were significant predictors of severity. Conclusions Dengue in children was characterized by a high severity, predominance of gastrointestinal symptoms, and atypical neurological presentations. Younger age, mouth sores, and a decreased platelet with increased hematocrit were significant predictors of severity. Our findings would contribute to the clinical management of dengue in children.
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