Introduction With early diagnosis, fiberoptic or rigid bronchoscopy methods are the gold standard in the management of tracheobronchial foreign body. Otherwise, nonrecognized bronchial foreign bodies cause irreversible damage to the airways and lungs. The deficiency of the health system noted in many developing countries such as Madagascar, combined with the fundamental problem relating to children’s conditions, which are determined by social and educational factors, makes it almost impossible to provide early and appropriate management of the penetration syndrome. Case presentation An 11-year-old Malagasy female patient was referred to our hospital for an investigation of the etiology of the patient’s hemoptysis. The investigations revealed a localized bronchiectasis and atelectasis due to a foreign body obstructing the left main bronchus. Based on the hemoptysis and left lung almost destroyed by an occlusive lesion within, we decided to proceed with left pneumonectomy. A retrospective interrogation revealed a choking episode 4 years prior in elementary school after the child sucked on a pen cap and involuntarily aspirated it. Two years after the pneumonectomy, our patient was doing well and was asymptomatic. Conclusion In this case report, we describe a rare case of a late presentation of foreign body aspiration that resulted in a left pneumonectomy in a child. Despite our favorable results, pneumonectomy must be the preferred last option. Preventive actions remain the optimal approach.
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