Morphological analysis of the digestive tract of Sphoeroides testudineus showed an esophagus with an anterior and a posterior portion, the abdominal pouch. No stomach was observed between the abdominal pouch and the intestine. The intestine was arranged in three segments and two loops, and the distal portion had the rectum opening into the anus. Histochemical analyses showed that the esophagus secreted acid mucosecretions, and that there was a qualitative increase in goblet cells from the proximal to distal area of the intestine. The rectum showed cells secreting acid and neutral mucus. Given these features, this species presents a morphology which creates a link between its ecology and behavior.
The tongue of birds fills the oral cavity and has a beak-like shape. Morphological studies of birds reveal a correlation between the structure of the tongue and the mechanism of food intake and the type of food. However, several studies have shown morphological differences among the tongues of bird species. The aim of this study was to analyze ostrich tongue morphology and ultrastructural features using scanning electron microscopy. Tongues from 12 adult ostriches were examined. Six tongues were sectioned sagittally into lateral and middle portions, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, and examined under light microscopy. The other six samples were sectioned longitudinally, and the dorsal and ventral surfaces were separated, immersion-fixed in modified Karnovsky solution, and examined under scanning electron microscopy. The tongue surface of the ostrich was smooth, without lingual papillae, and covered by stratified non-keratinized epithelium. In the submucosal layer, mucous salivary glands were surrounded by connective-tissue capsules, with septa dividing the glands into lobes. Numerous salivary gland ducts of different sizes and connective-tissue laminae dividing each opening could be clearly seen in scanning electron microscope images. The ventral surface had fewer openings than the dorsal surface. In samples treated with NaOH, connective-tissue papillae from the dorsal region were oriented posteriorly.
de Melo Germano, R., Stabille, S.R., de Britto Mari, R., Pereira, J.N.B., Faglioni, J.R.S. and de Miranda Neto, M.H. 2014. Morphological characteristics of the Pterodoras granulosus digestive tube (Valenciennes, 1821) (Osteichthyes, Doradidae). -Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 95: 166-175.Little is known about the digestive tube (DT) morphology of the fish Pterodoras granulosus. Therefore, macro-, meso-and microscopic aspects of 15 P. granulosus DTs were analysed. The muscular layer was composed of striated skeletal muscle in the oesophagus and smooth muscle in the other segments. The epithelium progressed from a stratified pavement in the oesophagus to a simple column in the other segments, with a flat striated border in the intestine. A large number of mucus-secreting periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells were observed in the oesophagus. In the stomach, the number of glands in the region decreased towards the cardiac-fundic region, and none were found in the pylorus. The intestine showed an epithelium with absorption cells and an increasing number of PAS-positive caliciform cells towards the distal region. Tests showed that the oesophagus is adapted for passing and preparing food for the chemical digestion that occurs in the stomach, which also has storage functions without grinding action. The proximal intestinal region was consistent with fat absorption, and the medium region, with the absorption of other nutrients. The distal region was short and consistent with a role in absorption for osmoregulation as well as in the formation, storage and disposal of faeces.Ricardode Melo Germano, Departamento de Ciências Morfol ogicas, Universidade Estadual de Maring a, Av. Colombo, nº. 5790 -Bloco H79 -CEP. 87020-900, Maring a -Paran a, Brasil.
The relation between hyperglycemia and diabetic neuropathy has already been demonstrated in some studies. Among the theories proposed for its etiology the oxidative stress stands out. The performance of nitric oxide as a link between the metabolic and vascular neuropathogenic factors that triggers the diabetic neuropathy has already been put forward. This study aimed to assess the quantification and measurements of the cell body profile area (CBPA) of NADPH-diaphorase reactive (NADPH-dp) myenteric neurons of the jejunum of diabetic rats (induced by streptozotocin) supplemented with Ascorbic Acid (AA). These changes in the myenteric neurons seem to be related to the gastrointestinal disturbances observed in diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were distributed in 4 groups (n=5): controls (C), control supplemented (CS), diabetic (D), and diabetic suplemented (DS). DM was induced by estreptozotocin (50mg/kg body wt). One week after the induction and confirmation of the DM (glycemia exam), animals of the groups CS and DS received 50mg of AA three times a week by gavage. After 90 days of experiment, the animals were anesthetized with lethal thiopental dose (40mg/kg) and the collected jejunum processed for the histochemistry NADPH-diaphorase technique. Whole-mount preparations were obtained for quantitative and morphometric analysis of the myenteric neurons. A quantity of jejunum neurons in the Group D (96±7.5) was not different (P>0.05) from Group DS (116±8.08), C (92±9.7), and CS (81±5.4), but in Group DS the quantity was higher (P<0.05) than in Group C and CS. The CBPA of neurons from Group D (189.50±2.68µm²) and DS (195.92±3.75µm²) were lower (P<0.05) than from Group C (225.13±4.37µm²) and CS (210.23±3.15µm²). The streptozotocin-induced DM did not change the jejunum-ileum area, the jejunum myenteric plexus space organization and the density of NADPH-dp neurons. The 50g AA-supplementation, three times a week, during 90 days, did not decrease hyperglycemia; however, it had a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons, minimizing the increase on the CBPA of NADPH-dp neurons and increasing the amount of NADPD-dp neurons.
Aging is a biologic process characterized by progressive damage of structures and functions of organic systems. In gastrointestinal tract, it can involve enteric nervous system, which plays an important role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, causing hastening of intestinal transit thus reducing its absorptive function. Caloric restriction has been used in several studies with the intention of delaying deleterious effects of aging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on myenteric neurons of ileum by aging in rats. 30 Wistar rats were grouped as follows: GI (animals aged 6 months fed with normal diet), GII (animals aged 18 months fed with normal diet) and GIII (animals aged 18 months subject to 31% of caloric restriction). The rats of the GI group were euthanized at 6 months of age and after experimental period of 12 months animals of the group GII and GIII were euthanized, the ileum of all groups were collected, measured and processed by NADPH-dp and Acetylcholinesterase. Quantitative analysis of neurons revealed that aging promotes the increasing of myenteric neurons NADPH-dp and reduces Acetylcholinesterase neuronal population. However, in the cellular profile area, were not observed significant differences between the groups. The caloric restriction has been efficient and can be used preventively because it minimizes quantitative changes associated with aging on ileum myenteric plexuses.
Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.
The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.