Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.
The western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a pest of maize in the USA and Europe and especially a problem in particular regions of Croatia. In the present study, patterns of variation in hind wing shape were examined. The first objective was to examine the influence of soil type on 10 populations of D. v. virgifera sampled from three regions in Croatia that differed according to edaphic factors and climate. The second objective was to investigate the potential evolutionary presence of directional asymmetry on hind wings. Geometric morphometrics was used to examine these objectives by quantifying the morphological variation within and among individuals and populations. Overall, D. v. virgifera hind wing shape changed according to major soil type classifications in Croatia. The three hind wing morphotypes found varied because of basal radial vein differences, related to landmarks 1, 3, 7, and 14. The findings of the present study show that hind wing shape in D. v. virgifera can be used to differentiate populations based on edaphic factors and may have application as a monitoring tool in the integrated management of D. v. virgifera. In an evolutionary context, the presence of directional asymmetry in the hind wings of D. v. virgifera adds to the ever growing data on the evolution of insect wings.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.) (CPB) is the main potato pest in Croatia. The main problems in CPB control are related to a number of treatments and resistance development. In order to investigate the efficacy of combinations a reduced dose of spinosad (33% of the full doses) with the reduced doses (33% of full doses) of B.t.t., neem and pyrethrin against CPB larvae, 3-year field trials and one laboratory trial were conducted. Joint actions of the insecticides in combinations were analyzed. The CPB attack on experimental fields in all 3 years of investigation was high to moderate. In 2001 the maximum number of larvae on untreated plots was 11.7 larvae per plant, while in 2002 and 2003 it was lower, 5.5 and 6.1 larvae/ plant, respectively. The efficacy obtained with a full dose of B.t.t. reached 75% in the field, and 78% in the laboratory trial. The residual efficacy of a full dose of B.t.t. lasted 7-10 days. The application of both, full and reduced doses of B.t.t., did not result in a significant yield increase. The results indicate that only one treatment with B.t.t. insecticide alone is not enough for efficient protection of potato against the attack of CPB larvae. The application of neem resulted in an efficacy of between 54 and 87.9%. The residual activity of neem was too short to ensure significant yield increase in 2 out of 3 years of the investigation. The application of a full dose of pyrethrin ensured an efficacy of between 86 and 89% with residual activity of 7-10 days. Only in the trial in 2003 significant yield increase (40% higher than untreated control) after the application of a full dose of pyrethin was recorded. The application of both, full and reduced doses of spinosad resulted in very high efficacy (over 90%), with residual activity between 10 and 20 days. The application of spinosad resulted in a significant yield increase in 2003, both in full and reduced doses, and in 2001 in the full dose (the reduced dose was not tested alone in 2001). High efficacy of the reduced dose of spinosad indicated its high biological activity and possibility for the reduction of the recommended dose. However, applications of combinations of insecticides in reduced doses (spinosad with B.t.t., neem and pyrethrin) resulted in efficacies of over 97% with residual activity of up to 21 days. Significant yield increase was noted after the application of the combinations of spinosad with B.t.t. and pyrethrin. The results of the laboratory trial confirmed the results of field trials. The joint action of insecticides was mainly described as independent synergism. It can be concluded that applied combinations are suitable in IPM in potato.
We present a synthetic review and expert consultation that assesses the actual risks posed by arthropod pests in four major crops, identifies targets for integrated pest management (IPM) in terms of cultivated land needing pest control and gauges the implementation “readiness” of non-chemical alternatives. Our assessment focuses on the world’s primary target pests for neonicotinoid-based management: western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera ) in maize; wireworms ( Agriotes spp.) in maize and winter wheat; bird cherry-oat aphid ( Rhopalosiphum padi ) in winter wheat; brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens ) in rice; cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii ) and silver-leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci ) in cotton. First, we queried scientific literature databases and consulted experts from different countries in Europe, North America, and Asia about available IPM tools for each crop-pest system. Next, using an online survey, we quantitatively assessed the economic relevance of target pests by compiling country-level records of crop damage, yield impacts, extent of insecticide usage, and “readiness” status of various pest management alternatives (i.e., research, plot-scale validation, grower-uptake). Biological control received considerable scientific attention, while agronomic strategies (e.g., crop rotation), insurance schemes, decision support systems (DSS), and innovative pesticide application modes were listed as key alternatives. Our study identifies opportunities to advance applied research, IPM technology validation, and grower education to halt or drastically reduce our over-reliance on systemic insecticides globally. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11356-020-09279-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Modelling population dynamics of the maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (western corn rootworm; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) requires knowledge on the growth rate (=net reproductive rate) of the species. We investigated the generational (=annual) growth rate of D. v. virgifera in isolated maize fields in southern Hungary and eastern Croatia over several years. The population densities of D. v. virgifera were assessed by absolute counts of emerging adults in 90 gauze cages per study field. Emergence ranged from 1.3 to 30.7 adults per m 2 in continuous maize field sections, and from 0.3 to 5.1 adults per m 2 in adjacent first-year maize sections. The annual growth rates of D. v. virgifera ranged from 0.5 to 13, and averaged in close to 4. These experimentally assessed growth rates could complement growth estimates in population dynamic models, particularly those for forecasting the population growth to economic thresholds or for estimating population build-ups after new introductions of this alien species in Europe. As an example, the determined growth rate was used to estimate that the first documented successful introduction of this species into Europe occurred between 1979 and 1984, which is 8-13 years before the detection of this species and its larval damage in maize fields near Belgrade, Serbia, in 1992.
Colorado potato beetle, CPB (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), is one of the most important pests of the potato globally. Larvae and adults can cause complete defoliation of potato plant leaves and can lead to a large yield loss. The insect has been successfully suppressed by insecticides; however, over time, has developed resistance to insecticides from various chemical groups, and its once successful control has diminished. The number of available active chemical control substances is decreasing with the process of testing, and registering new products on the market are time-consuming and expensive, with the possibility of resistance ever present. All of these concerns have led to the search for new methods to control CPB and efficient tools to assist with the detection of resistant variants and monitoring of resistant populations. Current strategies that may aid in slowing resistance include gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi, besides providing an efficient tool for gene functional studies, represents a safe, efficient, and eco-friendly strategy for CPB control. Genetically modified (GM) crops that produce the toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have many advantages over agro-technical, mechanical, biological, and chemical measures. However, pest resistance that may occur and public acceptance of GM modified food crops are the main problems associated with Bt crops. Recent developments in the speed, cost, and accuracy of next generation sequencing are revolutionizing the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and field of population genomics. There is a need for effective resistance monitoring programs that are capable of the early detection of resistance and successful implementation of integrated resistance management (IRM). The main focus of this review is on new technologies for CPB control (RNAi) and tools (SNPs) for detection of resistant CPB populations.
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), in contrast with other asymmetries, is the bilateral asymmetry that represents small, random developmental differences between right and left sides. After nearly a century of using traditional morphometrics in the estimation of FA, geometric morphometrics (GM) now provides new insights into the use of FA as a tool, especially for assessing environmental and developmental stress. Thus, it will be possible to assess adaptation to various environmental stressors as particular triggers for unavoidable selection pressures. In this review, we describe measures of FA that use geometric morphometrics, and we include a flow chart of the methodology. We also describe how this combination (GM + FA) has been tested in several agroecosystems. Nutritional stress, temperature, chemical pollution, and population density are known stressors experienced by populations in agroecosystems.
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