Going to primary health care services for diagnosis increased the time before diagnosis of the disease was reached. The Tuberculosis Control Program clinic was more effective in diagnosis of tuberculosis, due to the training of the staff and to an organized process for receiving patients, including the availability of tests to support the diagnosis.
BackgroundThe World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “End TB Strategy”, which aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) mortality by 95% by 2035, Brazil has made a commitment to this, however, one challenge is achieving the goal in the border region, where the TB situation is more critical. The proposal was to analyse the spatial mortality due to TB and its socio-economic determinants in the general population, around the border areas of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, as well as the temporal trend in this region.MethodThis ecological study considered the cases of TB deaths of residents of Foz do Iguaçu (BR), with its units of analysis being the census sectors. The standardized mortality rate was calculated for each area. Socioeconomic variables data were obtained from the 2010 Demographic Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The scan statistic was applied to calculate the spatial relative risk (RR), considering a 95% confidence interval (CI). Spatial dependence was analysed using the Global Bivariate Moran I and Local Bivariate Moran I (LISA) to test the relationship between the socioeconomic conditions of the urban areas and mortality from TB. Analysis of the temporal trend was also performed using the Prais-Winsten test.ResultsA total of 74 cases of TB death were identified, of which 53 (71.6%) were male and 51 (68.9%) people of white skin colour. The mortality rate ranged from 0.28 to 22.75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. A spatial relative risk area was identified, RR = 5.07 (95% CI 1.79–14.30). Mortality was associated with: proportion of people of brown skin colour (I: 0.0440, p = 0.033), income (low income I: − 0.0611, p = 0.002; high income I: − 0.0449, p = 0.026) and density of residents (3 and 4 residents, I: 0.0537, p = 0.007; 10 or more residents, I: − 0.0390, p = 0.035). There was an increase in the mortality rate in people of brown skin colour (6.1%; 95% CI = 0.029, 0.093).ConclusionDeath due to TB was associated with income, race resident density and social conditions. Although the TB mortality rate is stationary in the general population, it is increasing among people of brown skin colour.
BackgroundBrazil is the only country in Latin America that has adopted a national health system. This causes differences in access to health among Latin American countries and induces noticeable migration to Brazilian regions to seek healthcare. This phenomenon has led to difficulties in the control and elimination of diseases related to poverty, such as leprosy. The aim of this study was to evaluate social determinants and their relationship with the risk of leprosy, as well as to examine the temporal trend of its occurrence in a Brazilian municipality located on the tri-border area between Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.MethodsThis ecological study investigated newly-diagnosed cases of leprosy between 2003 and 2015. Exploratory analysis of the data was performed through descriptive statistics. For spatial analysis, geocoding of the data was performed using spatial scan statistic techniques to obtain the Relative Risk (RR) for each census tract, with their respective 95% confidence intervals calculated. The Bivariate Moran I test, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to analyze the spatial relationships of social determinants and leprosy risk. The temporal trend of the annual coefficient of new cases was obtained through the Prais-Winsten regression. A standard error of 5% was considered statistically significant (p < 0.05).ResultsOf the 840 new cases identified in the study, there was a predominance of females (n = 427, 50.8%), of white race/color (n = 685, 81.6%), age range 15 to 59 years (n = 624, 74.3%), and incomplete elementary education (n = 504, 60.0%). The results obtained from multivariate analysis revealed that the proportion of households with monthly nominal household income per capita greater than 1 minimum wage (β = 0.025, p = 0.036) and people of brown race (β = -0.101, p = 0.024) were statistically-significantly associated with risk of illness due to leprosy. These results also confirmed that social determinants and risk of leprosy were significantly spatially non-stationary. Regarding the temporal trend, a decrease of 4% (95% CI [-0.053, -0.033], p = 0.000) per year was observed in the rate of detection of new cases of leprosy.ConclusionThe social determinants income and race/color were associated with the risk of leprosy. The study’s highlighting of these social determinants can contribute to the development of public policies directed toward the elimination of leprosy in the border region.
Atraso na busca por serviço de saúde para o diagnóstico da Tuberculose em Ribeirão Preto (SP)Delay in the search for health services for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto, Sao PauloResumo Foi analisado o atraso na busca por serviço de saúde para o diagnóstico da Tuberculose (TB) em Ribeirão Preto, 2009, em um estudo epidemiológico, transversal, realizado com 94 doentes. Utilizou-se questionário baseado no Primary Care Assessment Tool, adaptado para avaliar a atenção à TB. Estabeleceu-se a mediana (15 dias ou mais) para caracterizar atraso na busca pelo primeiro atendimento. Através da Razão de Prevalência, identificaram-se as variáveis relacionadas ao maior atraso. O primeiro serviço de saúde procurado foi o de pronto atendimento (57,4%). Verificou-se um maior tempo na procura pelos serviços de saúde entre os doentes: do sexo masculino; com idade entre 50 a 59 anos; com renda familiar inferior a cinco salários mí-nimos; forma pulmonar; casos novos; não coinfecção TB/HIV; não consumiam bebida alcoóli-ca, conhecimento satisfatório sobre TB (apresentou significância estatística na associação com o atraso) e que não procuravam o serviço de saúde próximo do domicílio antes de ter TB. Verificouse a necessidade de capacitação para os profissionais de saúde quanto aos sinais e sintomas da doença, reduzindo as barreiras de acesso ao diagnóstico oportuno da TB e divulgação ampla para a comunidade em geral. Palavras-chave Tuberculose, Diagnóstico tardio, Acesso aos serviços de saúde Abstract The scope of this paper is to analyze delays in locating health services for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto in 2009. An epidemiological and cross-sectional study was conducted with 94 TB patients undergoing treatment. A structured questionnaire, based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool adapted for TB care was used. A median (15 days or more) was established to characterize delay in health attendance. Using the Prevalence Ratio, the variables associated with longer delay were identified. The first healthcare services sought were the Emergency Services (ES) (57.5%). The longest period between seeking assistance occurred among males, aged between 50 and 59, who earned less than five minimum wages, had pulmonary TB, were new cases, were not co-infected with TB/HIV, did not consume alcohol, had satisfactory knowledge about TB before diagnosis (with a statistically significant association with delay) and who did not seek healthcare close to home before developing TB. There is a perceived need for training healthcare professionals about the signs and symptoms of the disease, reducing barriers of access to timely diagnosis of TB and widely disseminating it to the community in general.
Objective: Analyze the actions developed in Primary Health Care (PHC) to promote adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment in the perception of patients and nursing team. Methods: Cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted at the PHC of Campinas-SP, through structured interviews with 18 corresponding questions on the perception of professionals (183) and patients (165). Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used. Results: Actions such as the promotion of autonomy and time for the patient to talk about doubts and concerns, guidance to seek information in books and/or on the Internet on the disease, and for the family to perform TB tests, undergo directly observed treatment, schedule monthly consultations, delivery of written information on treatment and incentive were actions more perceived by the professionals than patients reported receiving. Conclusions: The identification of gaps in the offer of actions for adherence to TB treatment can help health services to change and improve the practice and the epidemiological scenario of the disease.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity and reliability of an instrument that evaluates the structure of primary health care units for the treatment of tuberculosis.METHODS This cross-sectional study used simple random sampling and evaluated 1,037 health care professionals from five Brazilian municipalities (Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte; Cabedelo, state of Paraíba; Foz do Iguaçu, state of Parana; Sao José do Rio Preto, state of Sao Paulo, and Uberaba, state of Minas Gerais) in 2011. Structural indicators were identified and validated, considering different methods of organization of the health care system in the municipalities of different population sizes. Each structure represented the organization of health care services and contained the resources available for the execution of health care services: physical resources (equipment, consumables, and facilities); human resources (number and qualification); and resources for maintenance of the existing infrastructure and technology (deemed as the organization of health care services). The statistical analyses used in the validation process included reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis.RESULTS The validation process indicated the retention of five factors, with 85.9% of the total variance explained, internal consistency between 0.6460 and 0.7802, and quality of fit of the confirmatory factor analysis of 0.995 using the goodness-of-fit index. The retained factors comprised five structural indicators: professionals involved in the care of tuberculosis patients, training, access to recording instruments, availability of supplies, and coordination of health care services with other levels of care. Availability of supplies had the best performance and the lowest coefficient of variation among the services evaluated. The indicators of assessment of human resources and coordination with other levels of care had satisfactory performance, but the latter showed the highest coefficient of variation. The performance of the indicators “training” and “access to recording instruments” was inferior to that of other indicators.CONCLUSIONS The instrument showed feasibility of application and potential to assess the structure of primary health care units for the treatment of tuberculosis.
delay in seeking care was lower among smokers and alcohol users; shortcomings in access to diagnosis characterized health services delay.
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