Little is known about the commercial potential of mini-tomato hybrids obtained from one dwarf parent. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids obtained by crossing a dwarf line (A) with normal lines with indeterminate (I), determinate (D) and semi-determinate (SD) growth habits. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Estação Experimental de Hortaliças at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-UFU in Monte Carmelo, Brazil. The experiment was completely randomized with 17 treatments and four repetitions. The genetic material consisted of 16 experimental mini-tomato hybrids from the tomato germplasm bank at UFU, and a commercial hybrid (Mascot) as a control. The following variables were used to evaluate agronomic performance: fruit weight (g); number of fruits plant ; stem diameter (mm); distance between first bunch and soil (cm); internode length (cm) and total soluble solids (°Brix). The growth habit of the parents influenced the performance of the hybrids. In general, the mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines differed from the control with respect to all variables except number of fruits plant -1 , number of fruits bunch -1 and stem diameter. On average, hybrids from dwarf lines showed higher productivity (20%), shorter internodes (11%) and a shorter distance between the first bunch and the ground (30%), relative to the control. Using dwarf lines to obtain mini-tomato hybrids was shown to be viable since the hybrids demonstrated better agronomic performance.
The use of dwarf lines to obtain mini-tomato hybrids has provided agronomic and economic benefits. In Brazil, round tomatoes predominate over other varieties. The benefits of using a dwarf parent in round tomato hybrids has yet to be explored, making it important to develop dwarf round tomato lines. Backcrossing is the most suitable method to develop these lines. Evaluation and selection of the dwarf populations can improve the development of such lines. Thus, the aim of this study was to select BC1F2 populations of dwarf round tomatoes with agronomic potential and high-quality fruit. The study was conducted at the Vegetable Experimental Station of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU). A randomized block design was used, with 15 treatments and three replicates. The genetic material analyzed consisted of 12 BC1F2 dwarf tomato populations, plus both parents (recurrent and donor) and a commercial hybrid. The characteristics assessed were: average fruit weight (g), total soluble solids (ºBrix), number of locules (locules per fruit-1), fruit shape, pulp thickness (cm), longitudinal (cm) and transverse fruit diameter (cm), internode length (cm) and plant height (cm). The data were submitted to mean testing, multivariate analyses and a selection index. In general, average fruit weight in the dwarf populations increased significantly after the first backcross, with some fruits exhibiting a similar shape to round tomatoes. Selection of the populations UFU-DTOM7, UFU-DTOM10, UFU-DTOM5, UFU-DTOM9, and UFU-DTOM3 resulted in an estimated 6% increase in the number of locules, transverse diameter, TD/LD ratio and average fruit weight. The BC1F2 dwarf populations UFU-DTOM7 and UFU-DTOM10 were the most promising for develop inbred lines with round fruits. Despite the considerable progress achieved in this study, we suggest a second backcross, in order to obtain lines and, posteriorly, hybrids with round fruits and compact plants.
ABSTRACT. The mini tomato production has expanded, becoming an amazing alternative for enterprise. Despite all commercial potential, the cultivation has the occurrence of pests as main obstacle during the crop development. Nowadays, there are no researches that aimed obtaining genotypes with high acylsugar content, capable of providing a broad-spectrum resistance to pests. This study aimed the selection of mini tomato genotypes, with high acylsugar content, and checking the resistance level to the silverleaf whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and to the two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Sixteen genotypes were evaluated, from which 12 were on the generation F 2 BC 1 , originated from the interespecific cross between Solanum pennellii versus Solanum lycopersicum L. and 4 were check treatments, being three of cultivated tomatos (cv. Santa Clara, UFU-02, and UFU-73) and the wild accession LA-716 (S. pennellii). The variables analyzed were acylsugar content, repellency to the silverleaf whitefly, repellence to the two-spotted spider mites, and density of glandular trichomes. The genotypes UFU-22-F 2 BC 1 #9 and UFU-73-F 2 BC 1 #11 have high acylsugar content and both are resistant to the pests that were evaluated. New studies must be conducted seeking for inbred lines, obtained from the selected genotypes, aiming to get commercial hybrids with high acylsugar content.
The genotypes evaluation in a germplasm bank is essential to determine their commercial or usefulness, as potential parents, in a breeding program. We aimed to detect the genetic diversity of 42 tomato genotypes of cherry type, belonging to the germplasm bank of the Federal University of Uberlândia and, also evaluate their behavior. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in randomized block design with 42 treatments and two replications. Ten quantitative traits of agronomic importance were evaluated. The genetic divergence was obtained by multivariate analysis, using the Mahalanobis distance with different clustering methods (UPGMA and Tocher). The hybrids performance was compared by Scott-Knott (p= 0.05) and Dunnett’s test (p= 0.05). UPGMA and Tocher grouped the genotypes similarly, representing genetic divergence satisfactorily. The genotypes UFU 29, UFU 21 and UFU 07 were more productive, earlier and also divergent from the pre-commercial treatment (UFU 200), being able to be used as potential parents.
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic divergence and select BC 1 F 3 populations of dwarf tomato plant within the Santa Cruz segment by computational intelligence techniques. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the Vegetable Crop Experimental Station of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used with 17 treatments and four replications. The genetic material evaluated comprised thirteen dwarf tomato plant populations obtained by a backcross and two self-fertilizations, plus both parents (recurrent and donor), and two commercial check varieties. The traits evaluated were mean fruit weight (MFW), soluble solids content (SSC), fruit diameter (FD), fruit length (FL), fruit shape (FS), pulp thickness (PT), number of locules (NL), distance between internodes, and acylsugar, β-carotene, and lycopene content. The data were analyzed by means testing, and genetic divergence was measured using Mahalanobis generalized distance by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and through computational intelligence using Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM). Genetic dissimilarity in relation to the donor parent could be confirmed through both methodologies. However, the SOM was able to detect differences and organize the similarities among the populations in a more consistent manner, resulting in a larger number of groups. In addition, the computational intelligence techniques allow the weight of each variable in formation of the groups to be ascertained. Among the BC 1 F 3 populations, UFU-SC#3 and UFU-SC#5 stood out for agronomic traits, and UFU-SC#10 and UFU-SC#11 stood out for quality parameters.
ABSTRACT:The growth habit directly influences the tomato architecture, impacting on agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids. However, little is known about the growth habit of mini-tomatoes hybrids obtained by the crossing of dwarf lines versus normal lines with different growth habits. The objective of this study was to determine the type of growth that occurs when crossing a mini-tomato dwarf line versus normal phenotype lines with indeterminate, determined and semi-determinate growth habit. The methodology consisted of biparental crosses [determined from a cross between a dwarf line with normal lines of different growth habits (determinate, semi-determinate and indeterminate)] and reciprocal backcrosses of the F1 to the parents [normal lines (P 1 ) and dwarf line (P 2 )], and obtained the F2 generation. Was evaluated phenotypically the growth habit in each generation. The growth habit proportions of F 1 (P 1 xP 2 ), F1 (P 2 xP 1 ), F 2 , F 1 RC 1 (P 1 ) and F 1 RC 1 (P 2 ), were classified after checking the expected and observed frequencies using the χ² test (F= 0.05). Was concluded that, when the determined and semi-determined growth habits are used as parents to produce hybrids, in F 2 population growth habits shows 3:1 type segregation. Futhermore, regardless of the normal parent growth habit, the hybrids (F 1 ) always will show indeterminate growth when they are crossed with the mini-tomato dwarf line of this study.
The objective of this study was to characterize genotypes of the salad-type tomato with a determinate growth habit and select genotypes resistant to the two-spotted spider mite for higher productivity and fruit quality. The experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Experimental Station (18°42’43.19” S and 47°29’55.8” W, 873 m altitude) of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Monte Carmelo campus, from January to June 2018. The experimental design was in randomized blocks containing 16 treatments [12 populations of the F3RC2 generation and four controls: two commercial cultivars (Santa Clara and Rio Grande), the recurrent parent (UFU-057) and the wild species Solanum pennellii (LA-716)] with three repetitions. The accessions UFU-057F3RC210#3.6.1 and UFU-057F3RC213#2.1.2 have high potential for genetic improvement regarding resistance to the two-spotted spider mite. The genotypes UFU-13#4.4.1, UFU-7#4.7.1, UFU-7#4.3.2, UFU-13#2.5.2 and UFU-13#2.1.3 present higher acylsugar concentrations than S. pennellii, in addition to higher productivity and number of fruits per plant. It is suggested to explore combinations between those genotypes previously described with UFU-8#2.4.1 to obtain hybrids with high acylsugar concentrations, two-spotted spider mite resistance, high productivity and increased fruit mass.
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