High temperature is a major factor affecting grain yield and plant senescence in wheat growing regions of central and east China. In this study, two different wheat cultivars, Yangmai 9 with low-grain protein concentration and Xuzhou 26 with high-grain protein concentration, were exposed to different temperature regimes in growth chambers during grain filling. Four day/night temperature regimes of 34°C/ 22°C, 32°C/24°C, 26°C/14°C, and 24°C/16°C were established to obtain two daily temperatures of 28 and 20°C, and two diurnal day/night temperature differences of 12 and 8°C. Concentration of a lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), chlorophyll concentration (SPAD) in flag leaves and kernel weight were determined. Results show that activities of SOD and CAT in leaves increased markedly on 14 days after anthesis (DAA) for the high-temperature treatment (34°C/22°C) and then declined. As a result, MDA concentration in leaves increased significantly under high temperature (34°C/22°C and 32°C/24°C). Compared with optimum temperature treatment, high temperature reduced the concentration of soluble protein and SPAD values in flag leaves. Grain-filling rate increased slightly initially, but decreased significantly during late grain filling under high temperature. As a result, final grain weight was reduced markedly under high temperature. Decreases in the activities of SOD and CAT and increases in MDA concentration in leaves were more pronounced with a 12°C of day/night temperature difference when under high temperatures. Kernel weight was higher under 12°C of day/night temperature difference under optimum temperatures (24°C/16°C and 26°C/14°C). The responses to high-temperature regimes appeared to differ between the two wheat cultivars with different grain protein concentrations. It is concluded that a larger diurnal temperature difference hastened the senescence of flag leaves under high-temperature conditions, but retarded senescence under optimum temperature treatments of 26°C/14°C and 24°C/16°C.
The kinetics of non-catalyzed decompositions of xylose and its decomposition product furfural in high temperature liquid water (HTLW) was studied for temperature from 180 to 220℃ and under pressure of 10MPa. The main products of xylose decomposition were furfural and formic acid, and furfural further degraded to formic acid under HTLW condition. With the assumption of first order kinetics equation, the evaluated activation energy of xylose and furfural decomposition was 123.27kJ•mol -1 and 58.84kJ•mol -1 , respectively.
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 9 (water-logging tolerant) and Yumai 34 (water-logging sensitive) were subjected to water-logging (WL) from 7 d after anthesis to determine the responses of photosynthesis and anti-oxidative enzyme activities in flag leaf. At 15 d after treatment (DAT), net photosynthetic rate under WL was only 3.7 and 8.9 μmol(CO 2 ) m -2 s -1 in Yumai 34 and Yangmai 9, respectively, which was much lower than in the control. Ratios of variable to maximum and variable to initial fluorescence, actual photosynthetic efficiency, and photochemical quenching were much lower, while initial fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching were much higher under WL than in control, indicating damage to photosystem 2. WL decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both cultivars, and activity of peroxidase (POD) in Yumai 34, while POD activity in Yangmai 9 was mostly increased. The obvious decrease in the amount of post-anthesis accumulated dry matter, which was redistributed to grains, also contributed to the grain yield loss under WL.
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