Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has an increasing role in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Although, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the commonly chosen target, a number of groups have reported that the most effective contact lies dorsal/dorsomedial to the STN (region of the pallidofugal fibres and the rostral zona incerta) or at the junction between the dorsal border of the STN and the latter. We analysed our outcome data from Parkinson's disease patients treated with DBS between April 2002 and June 2004. During this period we moved our target from the STN to the region dorsomedial/medial to it and subsequently targeted the caudal part of the zona incerta nucleus (cZI). We present a comparison of the motor outcomes between these three groups of patients with optimal contacts within the STN (group 1), dorsomedial/medial to the STN (group 2) and in the cZI nucleus (group 3). Thirty-five patients with Parkinson's disease underwent MRI directed implantation of 64 DBS leads into the STN (17), dorsomedial/medial to STN (20) and cZI (27). The primary outcome measure was the contralateral Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score (off medication/off stimulation versus off medication/on stimulation) measured at follow-up (median time 6 months). The secondary outcome measures were the UPDRS III subscores of tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. Dyskinesia score, L-dopa medication reduction and stimulation parameters were also recorded. The mean adjusted contralateral UPDRS III score with cZI stimulation was 3.1 (76% reduction) compared to 4.9 (61% reduction) in group 2 and 5.7 (55% reduction) in the STN (P-value for trend <0.001). There was a 93% improvement in tremor with cZI stimulation versus 86% in group 2 versus 61% in group 1 (P-value = 0.01). Adjusted 'off-on' rigidity scores were 1.0 for the cZI group (76% reduction), 2.0 for group 2 (52% reduction) and 2.1 for group 1 (50% reduction) (P-value for trend = 0.002). Bradykinesia was more markedly improved in the cZI group (65%) compared to group 2 (56%) or STN group (59%) (P-value for trend = 0.17). There were no statistically significant differences in the dyskinesia scores, L-dopa medication reduction and stimulation parameters between the three groups. Stimulation related complications were seen in some group 2 patients. High frequency stimulation of the cZI results in greater improvement in contralateral motor scores in Parkinson's disease patients than stimulation of the STN. We discuss the implications of this finding and the potential role played by the ZI in Parkinson's disease.
Gait disturbance and postural instability are some the most disabling symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in late stage disease can be resistant to both medical and surgical therapies. We implanted bilateral deep brain stimulation electrodes into the pedunculopontine nucleus in two patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. We demonstrate for the first time that low frequency (20-25 Hz) stimulation of this nucleus significantly improves gait dysfunction and postural instability in both the 'on' and 'off' medication states. Their combined total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score improved by 53% and motor score by 57%. No procedure or stimulation-related complications were observed. If these findings are replicated in a larger number of patients, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation may provide the means to alleviate these disabling and otherwise treatment-resistant symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease.
This prospective study shows that the cZI may be an alternative target for the treatment of tremor with DBS. In contrast to bilateral DBS of the VL nucleus, it improves all components of tremor affecting both the distal and proximal limbs as well as the axial musculature.
We have shown previously that intraparenchymal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) continuously into the posterior putamen in five Parkinson's disease patients is safe and may represent a new treatment option. Here, we report a continuation of this phase I study. After 2 years of continual GDNF infusion, there were no serious clinical side effects and no significant detrimental effects on cognition. Patients showed a 57% and 63% improvement in their off-medication motor and activities of daily living subscores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, respectively, and health-related quality-of-life measures (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 and Short Form-36) showed general improvement over time.
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1/2) occur often in diffuse gliomas, where they are associated with abnormal accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Monitoring 2-HG levels could provide prognostic information in this disease, but detection strategies that are noninvasive and sufficiently quantitative have yet to be developed. In this study, we address this need by presenting a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) acquisition scheme that uses an ultrahigh magnetic field (!7T) capable of noninvasively detecting 2-HG with quantitative measurements sufficient to differentiate mutant cytosolic IDH1 and mitochondrial IDH2 in human brain tumors. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of in vivo 1 H-MRS spectra discriminated between IDHmutant tumors and healthy tissue, and separated IDH1 from IDH2 mutations. High-quality spectra enabled the quantification of neurochemical profiles consisting of at least eight metabolites, including 2-HG, glutamate, lactate, and glutathione in both tumor and healthy tissue voxels. Notably, IDH2 mutation produced more 2-HG than IDH1 mutation, consistent with previous findings in cell culture. By offering enhanced sensitivity and specificity, this scheme can quantitatively detect 2-HG and associated metabolites that may accumulate during tumor progression, with implications to better monitor patient responses to therapy. Cancer Res; 76(1); 43-49. Ó2015 AACR.
Bilateral subthalamic region stimulation is effective in arresting tremor and head titubation, as well as functional disability in ET. Complications like dysarthria and disequilibrium were not seen. These patients required low voltages of stimulation and did not develop a tolerance to the treatment.
Bilateral cZI stimulation is safe and effective in suppressing the postural and action component of ET. It is associated with a low incidence of stimulation related complications and patients do not develop tolerance to stimulation with maintained clinical benefit over a follow-up period of up to 7 years.
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