Resumo A pandemia e a inerente alteração de comportamentos, a par da parca previsibilidade, geraram maior ansiedade na população. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar se os níveis de depressão, ansiedade e estresse em estudantes universitários se alteraram no período pandêmico (2020) comparativamente a períodos anteriores/normais. O estudo foi constituído por dois grupos, sendo a amostra 1 constituída por 460 sujeitos com idade média de 20,14 anos, e a amostra 2 por 159 sujeitos com idade média de 20,40 anos. Todos preencheram um questionário sociodemográfico e as escalas de ansiedade, depressão e estresse. Os estudantes que integraram o estudo no período pandêmico apresentaram níveis significativamente mais elevados de depressão, ansiedade e estresse comparativamente aos que integraram o estudo no período normal. Os resultados sugerem um impacto psicológico negativo da pandemia nos estudantes. Importa continuar a explorar as implicações da pandemia na saúde mental dos estudantes, para que se possam prevenir e minorar os seus efeitos.
Several decades of frustrated attempts to prevent fires in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) have led to deleterious ecological and management consequences. In 2014, the first Integrated Fire Management (IFM) programme was launched in three protected areas (PAs). The IFM programme considers local practices, ecological information, management options and aims to create landscape mosaics of different fire histories to conserve biodiversity, reduce the prevalence of late‐dry season (LDS) wildfires, protect fire‐sensitive vegetation and reduce conflicts between PA managers and local communities. The first 3 years of imposed fire management regimes led to 40%–57% reduction in LDS fires, improved dialogue between researchers, managers and local communities, generating fire management learning communities. Synthesis and applications. This Integrated Fire Management programme represents a major advance in Cerrado management and conservation, by actively managing fires and decreasing the proportion of areas burnt by late‐dry season wildfires. It can contribute to PAs’ management in the Cerrado and other South American fire‐prone ecosystems. Long‐term monitoring and research are essential to understand the ecological implications and to improve fire management practices.
Infections caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens have reached concerning numbers due to the increase of the immunocrompromised human population and to the development of antifungal resistance. This resistance is often attributed to the action of multidrug efflux pumps, belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Although many studies have focused on the role of ABC multidrug efflux transporters, little is still known on the part played by the Drug:H+ Antiporter (DHA) family of the MFS in this context. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role in antifungal drug resistance, mode of action and phylogenetic relations of DHA transporters, from the model yeast S. cerevisiae to pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Through the compilation of the predicted DHA transporters in the medically relevant Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus species, the fact that only 5% of the DHA transporters from these organisms have been characterized so far is evidenced. The role of these transporters in antifungal drug resistance and in pathogen-host interaction is described and their clinical relevance discussed. Given the knowledge gathered for these few DHA transporters, the need to carry out a systematic characterization of the DHA multidrug efflux pumps in fungal pathogens, with emphasis on their clinical relevance, is highlighted.
Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and production of coffee. The effects of water supply on growth, biomass allocation, water relations, and gas exchange in two coffee progenies representing drought-tolerant (Siriema) and drought-sensitive (Catucaí) genotypes were compared. They were grown in 12-L pots until 4-months old, when they were submitted to two watering treatments for 60 d: plants receiving either 100% transpired water (control plants) or a fraction (about 40%) of the amount of water transpired by control plants (drought-stressed plants). Under control conditions, Siriema grew faster than Catucaí. Regardless of the watering regimes and progenies, relative growth rate (RGR) was positively correlated both with net assimilation rate (NAR) and long-term water-use efficiency (WUE), but not with differences in biomass allocation. Both progenies responded to drought stress through (i) similar decreases in both RGR and NAR with marginal, if any, changes in allocation; (ii) decreases in leaf water potential, which occurred to a greater extent in Catucaí than in Siriema, even though they have showed similar abilities to adjust osmotically and elastically; (iii) similar reductions in net photosynthesis due mainly to nonstomatal factors; and (iv) decreases in transpiration rate coupled with increased long-term WUE. However, the lower transpiration rate and the higher long-term WUE as found in Siriema relative to Catucaí under control conditions persisted under drought conditions. Overall, the major differences between these progenies were largely associated with differences in plant water use, which was likely related to the improved water status of Siriema. The possible implications of selecting coffee genotypes for high WUE are discussed.
Multidrug/Multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR) is a widespread phenomenon with clinical, agricultural and biotechnological implications, where MDR/MXR transporters that are presumably able to catalyze the efflux of multiple cytotoxic compounds play a key role in the acquisition of resistance. However, although these proteins have been traditionally considered drug exporters, the physiological function of MDR/MXR transporters and the exact mechanism of their involvement in resistance to cytotoxic compounds are still open to debate. In fact, the wide range of structurally and functionally unrelated substrates that these transporters are presumably able to export has puzzled researchers for years. The discussion has now shifted toward the possibility of at least some MDR/MXR transporters exerting their effect as the result of a natural physiological role in the cell, rather than through the direct export of cytotoxic compounds, while the hypothesis that MDR/MXR transporters may have evolved in nature for other purposes than conferring chemoprotection has been gaining momentum in recent years. This review focuses on the drug transporters of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS; drug:H+ antiporters) in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. New insights into the natural roles of these transporters are described and discussed, focusing on the knowledge obtained or suggested by post-genomic research. The new information reviewed here provides clues into the unexpectedly complex roles of these transporters, including a proposed indirect regulation of the stress response machinery and control of membrane potential and/or internal pH, with a special emphasis on a genome-wide view of the regulation and evolution of MDR/MXR-MFS transporters.
Virtual Reality (VR) has been constantly evolving since its early days, and is now a fundamental technology in different application areas. User evaluation is a crucial step in the design and development of VR systems that do respond to users' needs, as well as for identifying applications that indeed gain from the use of such technology. Yet, there is not much work reported concerning usability evaluation and validation of VR systems, when compared with the traditional desktop setup. The paper presents a user study performed, as a first step, for the evaluation of a low-cost VR system using a Head-Mounted Display (HMD). That system was compared to a traditional desktop setup through an experiment that assessed user performance, when carrying out navigation tasks in a game scenario for a short period. The results show that, although users were generally satisfied with the VR system, and found the HMD interaction intuitive and natural, most performed better with the desktop setup.
Federal do Espírito Santo, objetivando avaliar tratamentos para acelerar a germinação e reduzir a deterioração de sementes de Ormosia nitida. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. No primeiro estudo, feito em papel substrato, os tratamentos foram sementes intactas, escarificação mecânica e escarificação química com H 2 SO 4 durante 10 min. No segundo estudo feito em placas de Petri, os tratamentos utilizados foram sementes intactas (controle); escarificação mecânica; escarificação mecânica + pré-embebição por 24 horas; H 2 O 2 no substrato; e escarificação química com H 2 SO 4 durante 1, 5, 10,15, 20, 25 e 30 min. Foram avaliados o vigor, através do índice de velocidade de germinação, e a germinação, através da porcentagem de plântulas normais. A todos os tratamentos pré-germinativos foram apresentados respostas positivas na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação em relação ao controle. A escarificação mecânica e o H 2 O 2 no substrato proporcionaram aumento significativo na velocidade e porcentagem de germinação das sementes, com redução da deterioração. Palavras-chave: Ormosia nitida, capacidade germinativa, vigor e dormência. ABSTRACT -The experiment was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of the Agronomy Center of the FederalUniversity of Espirito Santo, in order to attain acceleration of germination and reduce seed deterioration in Ormosia nitida Vog.. A completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used. In experiment I, with paper substratum, the treatments were intact seeds (control); mechanical scarification and sulfuric acid soaking for 10 minutes. In experiment II, in Petri dishes, the treatments were intacts seeds (control); mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification + soaking in water at 35ºC for 24 hours; imbibition of germination substratum with H 2 O 2 ; sulphuric acid soaking for 1; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 minutes. The results showed higher synchronization and speed germination in treatments with mechanical scarification, sulphuric acid for 10 minutes and H 2 O 2 in the substratum.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers