Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis--a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
To contribute to our understanding of the genome complexity of sugarcane, we undertook a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) program. More than 260,000 cDNA clones were partially sequenced from 26 standard cDNA libraries generated from different sugarcane tissues. After the processing of the sequences, 237,954 high-quality ESTs were identified. These ESTs were assembled into 43,141 putative transcripts. Of the assembled sequences, 35.6% presented no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the whole SUCEST data set indicated that 14,409 assembled sequences (33% of the total) contained at least one cDNA clone with a full-length insert. Annotation of the 43,141 assembled sequences associated almost 50% of the putative identified sugarcane genes with protein metabolism, cellular communication/signal transduction, bioenergetics, and stress responses. Inspection of the translated assembled sequences for conserved protein domains revealed 40,821 amino acid sequences with 1415 Pfam domains. Reassembling the consensus sequences of the 43,141 transcripts revealed a 22% redundancy in the first assembling. This indicated that possibly 33,620 unique genes had been identified and indicated that >90% of the sugarcane expressed genes were tagged
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2009-2010 and reported in United States swine for the first time in February 2014. However, diagnostic tools other than polymerase chain reaction for PDCoV detection were lacking and Koch's postulates had not been fulfilled to confirm the pathogenic potential of PDCoV. In the present study, PDCoV peptide-specific rabbit antisera were developed and used in immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays to assist PDCoV diagnostics. The pathogenicity and pathogenesis of PDCoV was investigated following orogastric inoculation of 5-day-old piglets with a plaque-purified PDCoV cell culture isolate (3 × 10(4) TCID50 per pig). The PDCoV-inoculated piglets developed mild to moderate diarrhea, shed increasing amount of virus in rectal swabs from 2 to 7 days post inoculation, and developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestines with viral antigen confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. This study experimentally confirmed PDCoV pathogenicity and characterized PDCoV pathogenesis in neonatal piglets.
Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes.
We hypothesize that fatty acid-induced uncoupling serves in bioenergetic systems to set the optimum efficiency and tune the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Uncoupling results from fatty acid cycling, enabled by several phylogenetically specialized proteins and, to a lesser extent, by other mitochondrial carriers. It is suggested that the regulated uncoupling in mammalian mitochondria is provided by uncoupling proteins UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3, whereas in plant mitochondria by PUMP and StUCP, all belonging to the gene family of mitochondrial carriers. UCP-1, and hypothetically UCP-3, serve mostly to provide nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, respectively. Fatty acid cycling was documented for UCP-1, PUMP and ADP/ATP carrier, and is predicted also for UCP-2 and UCP-3. UCP-1 mediates a purine nucleotide-sensitive uniport of monovalent unipolar anions, including anionic fatty acids. The return of protonated fatty acid leads to H+ uniport and uncoupling. UCP-2 is probably involved in the regulation of body weight and energy balance, in fever, and defense against generation of reactive oxygen species. PUMP has been discovered in potato tubers and immunologically detected in fruits and corn, whereas StUCP has been cloned and sequenced froma a potato gene library. PUMP is supposed to act in the termination of synthetic processes in mature fruits and during the climacteric respiratory rise.
SummaryModern sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important grass that contributes 60% of the raw sugar produced worldwide and has a high biofuel production potential. It was created about a century ago through hybridization of two highly polyploid species, namely S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. We investigated genome dynamics in this highly polyploid context by analyzing two homoeologous sequences (97 and 126 kb) in a region that has already been studied in several cereals. Our findings indicate that the two Saccharum species diverged 1.5-2 million years ago from one another and 8-9 million years ago from sorghum. The two sugarcane homoeologous haplotypes show perfect colinearity as well as high gene structure conservation. Apart from the insertion of a few retrotransposable elements, high homology was also observed for the nontranscribed regions. Relative to sorghum, the sugarcane sequences displayed colinearity, with the exception of two genes present only in sorghum, and striking homology in most non-coding parts of the genome. The gene distribution highlighted high synteny and colinearity with rice, and partial colinearity with each homoeologous maize region, which became perfect when the sequences were combined. The haplotypes observed in sugarcane may thus closely represent the ancestral Andropogoneae haplotype. This analysis of sugarcane haplotype organization at the sequence level suggests that the high ploidy in sugarcane did not induce generalized reshaping of its genome, thus challenging the idea that polyploidy quickly induces generalized rearrangement of genomes. These results also confirm the view that sorghum is the model of choice for sugarcane.
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