On average, tourism-specialized countries grow more than others. This is not consistent with the core of modern economic growth theory that suggests that economic growth is linked to sectors with high-tech intensity and large scale. In this article, we use appropriate panel data methods to study the relationship between tourism and economic growth. In general, we show that tourism is a positive determinant of economic growth both in a broad sample of countries and in a sample of poor countries. However, contrary to previous contributions, tourism is not more relevant in small countries than in a general sample.
Holoscopic imaging, also known as integral, light field, and plenoptic imaging, is an appealing technology for glassless 3D video systems, which has recently emerged as a prospective candidate for future image and video applications, such as 3D television. However, to successfully introduce 3D holoscopic video applications into the market, adequate coding tools that can efficiently handle 3D holoscopic video are necessary. In this context, this paper discusses the requirements and challenges for 3D holoscopic video coding, and presents an efficient 3D holoscopic coding scheme based on High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The proposed 3D holoscopic codec makes use of the self-similarity (SS) compensated prediction concept to efficiently explore the inherent correlation of the 3D holoscopic content in Intraand Inter-coded frames, as well as a novel vector prediction scheme to take advantage of the peculiar characteristics of the SS prediction data. Extensive experiments were conducted, and have shown that the proposed solution is able to outperform HEVC as well as other coding solutions proposed in the literature. Moreover, a consistently better performance is also observed for a set of different quality metrics proposed in the literature for 3D holoscopic content, as well as for the visual quality of views synthesized from decompressed 3D holoscopic content.
 The values of goods and services provided by wetland ecosystems are examined through a meta-analysis of an expanded database of wetland value estimates and with a focus on human-made wetlands. This study extends and improves upon previous meta-analyses of the wetland valuation literature in terms of the number of observations, geographical coverage, wetland class and integrity, and the measurement of the effects of scarcity and anthropogenic pressure. We find that water quality improvement, nonconsumptive recreation, and provision of natural habitat and biodiversity are highly valued services. Substitution effects are observed through the negative correlation between values and abundance of other wetlands. Wetland values are found to increase with anthropogenic pressure. An extended metaregression model with cross effects shows that the valuation of specific services varies with the type of wetland producing them. Humanmade wetlands are highly valued for biodiversity enhancement, water quality improvement, and flood control.
A B S T R A C TThere is a multitude of ecosystem service classifications available within the literature, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Elements of them have been used to tailor a generic ecosystem service classification for the marine environment and then for a case study site within the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. Indicators for each of the ecosystem services, deemed relevant to the case study site, were identified. Each indicator was then assessed against a set of agreed criteria to ensure its relevance and applicability to environmental management. This paper identifies the need to distinguish between indicators of ecosystem services that are entirely ecological in nature (and largely reveal the potential of an ecosystem to provide ecosystem services), indicators for the ecological processes contributing to the delivery of these services, and indicators of benefits that reveal the realized human use or enjoyment of an ecosystem service. It highlights some of the difficulties faced in selecting meaningful indicators, such as problems of specificity, spatial disconnect and the considerable uncertainty about marine species, habitats and the processes, functions and services they contribute to.
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