Health literacy, a more complex concept than knowledge, is a required capacity to obtain, understand, integrate and act on health information , in order to enhance individual and community health, which is defined by different levels, according to the autonomy and personal capacitation in decision making . Medium levels of Health literacy in an adolescent population were found in a study conducted in 2013/2014, being higher in sexual and reproductive health and lower in substance use. It was also noticed that the higher levels of health literacy were in the area adolescents refer to have receipt more health information. The health literacy competence with higher scores was communication skills, and the lower scores were in the capacity to analyze factors that influence health. Higher levels were also found in younger teenagers, but in a higher school level, confirming the importance of health education in these age and development stage. Adolescents seek more information in health professionals and parents, being friends more valued as a source information in older adolescents, which enhance the importance of peer education mainly in older adolescents . As a set of competences based on knowledge, health literacy should be developed through education interventions, encompassing the cultural and social context of individuals, since the society, culture and education system where the individual is inserted can define the way the development and enforcement of the health literacy competences . The valued sources of information should be taken into account, as well as needs of information in some topics referred by adolescents in an efficient health education. Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness which has a profound effect on the health and well-being related with the well-known nature of psychotic symptoms. The exercise has the potential to improve the life of people with schizophrenia improving physical health and alleviating psychiatric symptoms. However, most people with schizophrenia remains sedentary and lack of access to exercise programs are barriers to achieve health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on I) the type of intervention in mental health, II) in salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol and serum levels of S100B and BDNF, and on III) the quality of life and selfperception of the physical domain of people with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 31 females in long-term institutions in the Casa de Saúde Rainha Santa Isabel, with age between 25 and 63, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Physical fitness was assessed by the six-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Biological variables were determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Psychological variables were assessed using SF-36, PSPP-SCV, RSES and SWLS tests. Walking exercise has a positive impact on physical fitness (6MWD -p = 0.001) and physical components of the psychological test...
The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments.
Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly containing the non-classical enterotoxin genes seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.
There is recent evidence suggesting a negative impact of calcium load in the progression of vascular calcification in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 with adynamic bone disease. The current therapeutic approach to these patients should focus on reduction of calcium and vitamin D load to restore parathyroid activity.
Our data show that short chain (C12) n-alkyl pyridinium bromides have a sufficiently large therapeutic window to be good microbicide candidates.
Bile salts (BS) are biosurfactants synthesized in the liver and secreted into the intestinal lumen where they solubilize cholesterol and other hydrophobic compounds facilitating their gastrointestinal absorption. Partition of BS toward biomembranes is an important step in both processes. Depending on the loading of the secreted BS micelles with endogeneous cholesterol and on the amount of cholesterol from diet, this may lead to the excretion or absorption of cholesterol, from cholesterol-saturated membranes in the liver or to gastrointestinal membranes, respectively. The partition of BS toward the gastrointestinal membranes may also affect the barrier properties of those membranes affecting the permeability for hydrophobic and amphiphilic compounds. Two important parameters in the interaction of the distinct BS with biomembranes are their partition coefficient and the rate of diffusion through the membrane. Altogether, they allow the calculation of BS local concentrations in the membrane as well as their asymmetry in both membrane leaflets. The local concentration and, most importantly, its asymmetric distribution in the bilayer are a measure of induced membrane perturbation, which is expected to significantly affect its properties as a cholesterol donor and hydrophobic barrier. In this work we have characterized the partition of several BS, nonconjugated and conjugated with glycine, to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) in the liquid-disordered phase and with liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered phase coexistence, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The partition into the liquid-disordered bilayer was characterized by large partition coefficients and favored by enthalpy, while association with the more ordered membrane was weak and driven only by the hydrophobic effect. The trihydroxy BS partitions less efficiently toward the membranes but shows faster translocation rates, in agreement with a membrane protective effect of those BS. The rate of translocation through the more ordered membrane was faster, indicating accumulation of BS at specific locations in this membrane.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers