The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of physicians and emergency medical technicians (EMT) regarding primary treatment for dental trauma and to assess the experience they have in treating dental injuries. The study population consisted of 70 military physicians and EMT during their military service. A questionnaire was distributed relating to demographic data, such as age, gender, position, and type of military service, as well as the following issues: past experience in treating or witnessing dental trauma, former education regarding diagnosis and treatment of dental trauma, assessment of knowledge regarding dental trauma, etc. Of all participants, only 4 (5.9%), all physicians, received education regarding dental trauma. Nevertheless, 42 (61.8%) reported they witnessed such an injury during their military service. Dental injuries were first seen by the EMT in 41.2% of the cases, by the physician in 25%, and by a dentist in only 7.3%. Overall, 58 (85.3%) of the physicians and EMT stated that it was important to educate the primary health care providers regarding diagnosis and treatment of dental trauma. Special emphasis should be given to providing primary caregivers with the relevant education to improve their knowledge and ability of dealing with diagnosis and treatment of dental trauma.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is based on additive technology in which layers of materials are gradually placed to create 3D objects. The world of 3D printing is a rapidly evolving field in the medical industry as well as in most sectors of our lives. In this report we present current technological possibilities for 3D printing in the surgical field. There are different 3D printing modalities and much confusion among clinicians regarding the differences between them. Three-dimensional printing technologies can be classified based on the basic material used: solid, liquid, and powder. We describe the main printing methods from each modality and present their advantages while focusing on their applications in different fields of surgery, starting from 3D printing of models for preoperative planning up to patient-specific implants (PSI). We present the workflow of 3D printing for the different applications and our experience in 3D printing surgical guides as well as PSI. We include examples of 3D planning as well as clinical and radiological imaging of cases. Three-dimensional printing of models for preoperative planning enhances the 3D perception of the planned operation and allows for preadaptation of surgical instruments, thus shortening operation duration and improving precision. Three-dimensional printed PSI allow for accurate reconstruction of anatomic relations as well as efficiently restoring function. The application of PSI is expanding rapidly, and we will see many more innovative treatment modalities in the near future based on this technology.
Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare potentially fatal sequel of head and neck infection, classically described as thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with cervical space infection extending into the thorax. Our objective was to answer the clinical question: “Does Lemierre syndrome (LS) from odontogenic infection differ from nonodontogenic LS in regard to clinical sequence, treatment, and survival.” We reviewed the literature on the management of LS over the last two decades, with a focus on LS from odontogenic infection. Such a case is presented in order to portray the clinical sequence. Only 10 cases met the inclusion criteria (including the case presented). The recorded data were analyzed in comparison to large case series reviewing LS. Our data reflect the moderate differences in regard to IJV thrombosis and bacteriogram. There is an overall rise in published LS cases in the last 20 years. Odontogenic infection leading to LS is scarce, yet with survival rates similar to nonodontogenic LS. Repeated surgical interventions and aggressive wide spectrum antibiotic therapy remain the treatment of choice.
-This article reviews the management of mandibular body fractures in young children. Treatment principles of this fracture type differ from that of adults due to concerns regarding mandibular growth processes and dentition development. The goal of this fracture treatment is to restore the underlying bony architecture to its preinjury position in a stable fashion as non-invasively as possible and with minimal residual esthetic and functional impairment. The management of mandibular body fractures in children depends on the fracture type and the stage of skeletal and dental development; treatment modalities range from conservative non-invasive, through closed reduction and immobilization methods to open reduction with internal fixation. Disruption of the periosteal envelope of the mandibular body may have an unpredictable effect on growth. Thus, if intervention is required closed reduction is favored.
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