The presence of macroprolactinaemia does not exclude the possibility of a pituitary adenoma and consequently may not prevent pituitary imaging studies. However, our data demonstrate that all asymptomatic patients who screened positive for macroprolactin had normal pituitary imaging studies. Patient samples showing hyperprolactinaemia should be first tested for macroprolactin, before the patient is submitted to imaging studies. We suggest that imaging studies should be ordered in patients with macroprolactinaemia when indicated by clinically relevant features. As a result, unnecessary anxiety and costly medical procedures may be prevented.
CONTEXT: It is believed that about 25% of menopausal women in the USA will exhibit some kind of fracture as a consequence of osteoporosis. Fractures of the proximal femur are associated with a greater number of deaths and disabilities and higher medical expenses than all the other osteoporotic fractures together. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with proximal femur fracture in hospitals in São Paulo. DESIGN: Transversal and retrospective study. LOCAL: Hospital São Paulo and Hospital Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato Oliveira". PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged sixty-five years or more hospitalized because of proximal femur fracture, from March to November 1996 (N = 73). This group was compared to patients of the same age without fracture of the proximal femur. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of weight, height, body mass index; lifestyle habits (physical activity at home, ingestion of dairy calcium, drinking of coffee, smoking habit), gynecological history (ages at menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies and lactations), previous morbidity, use of medications, history of previous fractures, family history of osteoporosis. MEASUREMENT: The comparison of the different data regarding lifestyle habits between the two groups was made using the chi-squared test. Other data were analyzed using the Mann -- Whitney test. P £ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We noted a predominance of proximal femur fracture among females in relation to males (a female/male ratio of 3.3:1) with a progressive increase in the frequency of proximal femur fracture with age in both sexes. The group with proximal femur fracture, in comparison with the control group, showed a lower body mass index, less physical activity, and a greater number of pregnancies and lactations. Other data were not different. CONCLUSION: In accordance with the literature, we found a predomination of proximal femur fracture in women in relation to men, and a favorable effect of higher body mass index and physical activity for decreasing the frequency of proximal femur fracture. We also discuss the role of pregnancies and lactation on the frequency of proximal femur fracture.
The recently cloned extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in the regulation of extracellular calcium homeostasis. This receptor is expressed in all tissues related to this control (parathyroid glands, thyroid Ccells, kidneys, intestine and bones) and also in tissues with apparently no role in the maintenance of extracellular calcium levels, such as brain, skin and pancreas. The CaR amino acid sequence is compatible with three major domains: a long and hydrophilic aminoterminal extracellular domain, where most of the activating and inactivating mutations described to date are located and where the dimerization process occurs, and the agonist-binding site is located, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain involved in the signal transduction mechanism from the extracellular domain to its respective G protein, and a carboxyterminal intracellular tail, with a well-established role for cell surface CaR expression and for signal transduction. CaR cloning was immediately followed by the association of genetic human diseases with inactivating and activating CaR mutations: familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism are caused by CaR-inactivating mutations, whereas autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism is secondary to CaR-activating mutations. Finally, we will comment on the development of drugs that modulate CaR function by either activating (calcimimetic drugs) or antagonizing it (calcilytic drugs), and on their potential therapeutic implications, such as medical control of specific cases of primary and uremic hyperparathyroidism with calcimimetic drugs and a potential treatment for osteoporosis with a calcilytic drug.
RESUMOAs síndromes de neoplasias endócrinas múltiplas (NEM) incluem as do tipo 1 (MEN 1) e 2 (MEN 2), a síndrome de von Hippel-Lindau, neurofibromatose tipo 1 e o complexo de Carney. Estas são síndromes genéticas complexas decorrentes de ativação ou inativação de diferentes tipos de genes envolvidos na regulação da proliferação celular. Nesta revisão, discutiremos as manifestações clínicas e o acompanhamento da MEN 1, assim como o rastreamento genético de potenciais portadores de alterações no gene MEN 1. A MEN 1 inclui o desenvolvimento de hiperparatiroidismo primário multifocal, tumores de ilhotas pancreáticas e adenomas de hipófise. Além disso, alguns pacientes podem apresentar manifestações cutâneas como angiofibromas e colagenomas e ainda podem desenvolver outras neoplasias como tumores carcinóides, tumores de tiróide, adenomas de adrenal, lipomas, feocromocitomas e meningiomas. A MEN 1 é uma síndrome hereditária, transmitida de forma autossômica dominante e causada por mutação inativadora do gene MEN 1. O gene MEN 1 codifica uma proteína denominada "menin", que é um gene supressor tumoral. Vários estudos demonstraram sua importância na regulação da proliferação celular e confirmaram seu papel na patogênese da MEN 1. A identificação do gene MEN 1 e sua análise genética resultaram na possibilidade de monitoração de pacientes que ainda não apresentam manifestações clínicas associadas a esta síndrome e diagnóstico precoce e tratamento dos pacientes afetados. Tais medidas poderão implicar em sobrevida maior para estes pacientes. Estudos adicionais visando uma melhor compreensão da função e dos mecanismos de sinalização da proteína "menin" poderão propiciar alternativas terapêuticas para os pacientes que evoluem com malignização de tumores relacionados à MEN 1, podendo resultar em maior sobrevida. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes include types 1 (MEN 1) and 2 (MEN 2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Carney complex. These are complex genetic syndromes caused by activation or inactivation of different types of genes known to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. In this review we will discuss the clinical manifestations and management of the MEN 1 syndrome as well as the genetic screening of potential MEN 1 gene carriers. MEN 1 is a hereditary syndrome, transmitted in an autosomic dominant fashion and caused by an inactivating mutation of the MEN 1 gene, characterized by the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, islet cell tumors and pituitary adenomas. In addition, these patients can pre-
Vitamin D deficiency, observed mainly in the geriatric population, is responsible for loss of bone mass and increased risk of bone fractures. Currently, recommended doses of cholecalciferol are advised, but since there are few studies evaluating the factors that influence the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) following supplementation, we analyzed the relationship between the increase in serum 25(OH)D after supplementation and body fat. We studied a group of 42 homebound elderly subjects over 65 years old (31 women) in order to assess whether there is a need for adjustment of the doses of cholecalciferol administered to this group according to their adipose mass. Baseline measurements of 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone and bone remodeling markers (osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal fraction of type 1 collagen) were performed. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into three groups according to their percent body fat index and were treated with cholecalciferol, 7,000 IU a week, for 12 weeks. The increases in serum levels of 25(OH)D were similar for all groups, averaging 7.46 ng/mL (P < 0.05). It is noteworthy that this increase only shifted these patients from the insufficiency category to hypovitaminosis. Peak levels of 25(OH)D were attained after only 6 weeks of treatment. This study demonstrated that adipose tissue mass does not influence the elevation of 25(OH)D levels following vitamin D supplementation, suggesting that there is no need to adjust vitamin D dose according to body fat in elderly homebound individuals.
Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Among the genetic factors related to the development of osteoporosis, a possible association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) has been described in some populations. We characterized the VDR gene polymorphism in a healthy adult Brazilian population and in a group of patients with IDDM and correlated these findings with densitometric values in both groups. The Brazilian population is characterized by an important racial heterogeneity and therefore is considered an ethnically heterogeneous population. We recruited 94 healthy adult Brazilian volunteers (63 women and 31 men), mean (+/- SD) age 32.4 +/- 6.5 years (range 18-49 years), and 78 patients with IDDM (33 women and 45 men) diagnosed before 18 years of age, mean (+/- SD) age 23.3 +/- 5.5 years (range 18-39 years). VDR genotype was assessed by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by BsmI digestion on DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Statistical analysis included Bonferroni t-test to compare densitometric values within different genotypes in both groups and multiple regression analysis of bone density adjusted for potential confounding factors. The IDDM group had a lower BMD compared with the control group. The VDR genotype distribution in the control group was 43 Bb (45.7%), 39 bb (41.5%) and 12 BB (12.8%). This distribution did not differ from that observed in the IDDM group: 39 Bb (50%), 26 bb (33.3%) and 13 BB (16.7%). In the IDDM group, patients with the Bb genotype had a higher body weight when compared with the BB genotype (p = 0.02). However, when diabetic patients were controlled for age, sex and body mass index, BB genotype was associated with a lower mean BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck than in Bb and bb patients. BB patients had a shorter duration of IDDM than bb and Bb patients. These findings suggest a small influence of VDR gene polymorphism on BMD of a racially heterogeneous population with IDDM.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers