It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.
Objective. To assess prevalence of metabolically healthy individuals among patients with abdominal obesity (AO) and to determine phenotype and potential genetic traits associated with a benign metabolic status. Methods. 503 AO patients without cardiovascular diseases were examined. Waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and adiponectin (AN) and leptin (LEP) concentrations in serum were measured. Polymorphisms A19G and Q223R of the LEP and LEP receptor gene, and G276T and T45G of the AN gene were investigated. Results. 91.3% of patients were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO), and 8.7% metabolically healthy obese (MHO). MHO patients were younger, and had lesser BMI and WC, while duration of obesity, frequency, and duration of physical training were greater than MUO patients (p < 0.05). In MHO and MUO patients distribution of the G19G, G19A, and A19A genotypes of the LEP gene and G276G, G276T, and T276T genotypes of AN gene did not differ. The Т45Т genotype was associated with increase of metabolic disorders' risk for patients with АО (OR = 2.331; 95% CI = 1.121 ÷ 5.132). Conclusions. Prevalence of MHO individuals among patients with AO is low. Benign metabolic status was associated with younger age, lower waist circumference, and higher physical activity, shorter duration of obesity, and G45G adiponectin genotype carriage.
Introduction: Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms had been described to play a role in these conditions since vitamin D receptors were found in many tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and VDR gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters in Russian middle-aged women.Materials and Methods: A total of 697 women aged between 30 to 55 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and four VDR gene polymorphisms rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs731236 (TaqI), and rs2228570 (FokI) were measured. We applied the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to identify subjects with MS.Results: 9.3% of subjects had normal vitamin D level, while 90.7% were insufficient or deficient. Abdominal obesity (AO) was seen in 75.5%, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2DM was observed in 33.3%, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in 32.2% and hypertriglyceridemia in 23.4%. Serum 25(OH)D level in women with or without MS did not differ (48.6 ± 1.8 and 51.1 ± 1.5 nmol/l, p > 0.05). Subjects with vitamin D deficiency showed an increased risk of AO [CI 95% 2.23; 1.15–4.30] and low HDL-C [CI95% 2.60; 1.04–6.49] compared to subjects with normal 25(OH)D level. IGT and T2DM risk was increased only when 25(OH)D concentration was less than 39.0 nmol/l [CI 95% 7.17; 2.99–17.7], but risk of MS did not differ in normal vitamin D status subjects and insufficient/deficient ones (p > 0.05). T allele carriers (A) of rs7975232 had higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the GG (aa) genotypes. Similarly, GG (BB) genotype carriers of rs1544410 had higher triglyceride levels than subjects with A (b) allele carriers. However VDR gene polymorphisms did not seem to be associated with an increased risk of MS.Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency, rs7975232, and rs1544410 VDR gene variants are associated with MS parameters in Russian middle-aged women.
Recent studies have focused on the potential role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters regulate cell cholesterol content and reverse cholesterol transport. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation and mRNA levels of the ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes in EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were associated with CAD.
Paired EAT and SAT samples were collected from 82 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery either for coronary artery bypass grafting (CAD group, N = 66) or valve surgery (NCAD group, N = 16). ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels in EAT and SAT samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction, ABCA1 protein levels in EAT samples were assessed by western blotting. ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA methylation analysis was performed in 24 samples from the CAD group and 9 samples from the NCAD group via pyrosequencing.
DNA methylation levels in the ABCA1 promoter and ABCG1 cg27243685 and cg06500161 CpG sites were higher in EAT samples from patients with CAD compared with NCAD (21.92% vs 10.81%, p = 0.003; 71.51% vs 68.42%, p = 0.024; 46.11% vs 37.79%, p = 0.016, respectively). In patients with CAD, ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA methylation levels were higher in EAT than in SAT samples (p < 0.05). ABCA1 mRNA levels in EAT samples were reduced in the subgroup of patients with CAD and concomitant carotid artery disease or peripheral artery disease compared with the NCAD group (p = 0.024). ABCA1 protein levels in EAT samples tended to be lower in CAD patients than in the NCAD group (p = 0.053). DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1 cg27243685 site positively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentration (r = 0.510, p = 0.008), body mass index (r = 0.556, p = 0.013) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.504, p = 0.012) in SAT samples.
CAD is associated with ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA hypermethylation in EAT. CAD with concomitant carotid artery disease or peripheral artery disease is accompanied by decreased ABCA1 gene expression in EAT. DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1 cg27243685 locus in SAT are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity.
Tissue specific expression of genes encoding cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as genes encoding the most important transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis – LXRa, LXRb, PPARg and RORa has been investigated in intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAT) samples.A direct correlation between the content of ABCA1 and ABCG1 proteins with RORa protein level (r=0.480, p<0.05; r=0.435, p<0.05, respectively) suggests the role of the transcription factor RORa in the regulation of IAT ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels. ABCA1 and ABCG1 gene expression positively correlated with obesity indicators such as body mass index (BMI) (r=0.522, p=0.004; r=0.594, p=0.001, respectively) and waist circumference (r=0.403, p=0.033; r=0.474, p=0.013, respectively). The development of obesity is associated with decreased IAT levels of RORa and LXRb mRNA (p=0.016 and p=0.002, respectively). These data suggest that the nuclear factor RORa can play a significant role in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and control IAT expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, while the level of IAT LXRb gene expression may be an important factor associated with the development of obesity.
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