We simulate the growth of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes by implementing a suite of semi‐analytic models on the output of the Millennium Run, a very large simulation of the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmogony. Our procedures follow the detailed assembly history of each object and are able to track the evolution of all galaxies more massive than the Small Magellanic Cloud throughout a volume comparable to that of large modern redshift surveys. In this first paper we supplement previous treatments of the growth and activity of central black holes with a new model for ‘radio’ feedback from those active galactic nuclei that lie at the centre of a quasi‐static X‐ray‐emitting atmosphere in a galaxy group or cluster. We show that for energetically and observationally plausible parameters such a model can simultaneously explain: (i) the low observed mass drop‐out rate in cooling flows; (ii) the exponential cut‐off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function; and (iii) the fact that the most massive galaxies tend to be bulge‐dominated systems in clusters and to contain systematically older stars than lower mass galaxies. This success occurs because static hot atmospheres form only in the most massive structures, and radio feedback (in contrast, for example, to supernova or starburst feedback) can suppress further cooling and star formation without itself requiring star formation. We discuss possible physical models that might explain the accretion rate scalings required for our phenomenological ‘radio mode’ model to be successful.
The type-I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) response is critical to immunity against viruses and can be triggered in many cell types by cytosolic detection of viral infection, or in differentiated plasmacytoid dendritic cells by the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) subfamily, which generates signals via the adaptor MyD88 to elicit robust IFN induction. Using mice deficient in the Irf7 gene (Irf7-/- mice), we show that the transcription factor IRF-7 is essential for the induction of IFN-alpha/beta genes via the virus-activated, MyD88-independent pathway and the TLR-activated, MyD88-dependent pathway. Viral induction of MyD88-independent IFN-alpha/beta genes is severely impaired in Irf7-/- fibroblasts. Consistently, Irf7-/- mice are more vulnerable than Myd88-/- mice to viral infection, and this correlates with a marked decrease in serum IFN levels, indicating the importance of the IRF-7-dependent induction of systemic IFN responses for innate antiviral immunity. Furthermore, robust induction of IFN production by activation of the TLR9 subfamily in plasmacytoid dendritic cells is entirely dependent on IRF-7, and this MyD88-IRF-7 pathway governs the induction of CD8+ T-cell responses. Thus, all elements of IFN responses, whether the systemic production of IFN in innate immunity or the local action of IFN from plasmacytoid dendritic cells in adaptive immunity, are under the control of IRF-7.
The chemokines are a large family of small, structurally related cytokines. The physiological importance of most members of this family has yet to be elucidated, although some are inducible inflammatory mediators that determine leukocyte chemotaxis. Pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (PBSF/SDF-1) is a member of the CXC group of chemokines PBSF/SDF-1 stimulates proliferation of B-cell progenitors in vitro and is constitutively expressed in bone-marrow-derived stromal cells. Here we investigate the physiological roles of PBSF/SDF-1 by generating mutant mice with a targeted disruption of the gene encoding PBSF/SDF-1. We found that mice lacking PBSF/SDF-1 died perinatally and that although the numbers of B-cell progenitors in mutant embryos were severely reduced in fetal liver and bone marrow, myeloid progenitors were reduced only in the bone marrow but not in the fetal liver, indicating that PBSF/SDF-1 is responsible for B-cell lymphopoiesis and bone-marrow myelopoiesis. In addition, the mutants had a cardiac ventricular septal defect. Hence, we have shown that the chemokine PBSF/SDF-1 has several essential functions in development.
Vascularization of organs generally occurs by remodelling of the preexisting vascular system during their differentiation and growth to enable them to perform their specific functions during development. The molecules required by early vascular systems, many of which are receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, have been defined by analysis of mutant mice. As most of these mice die during early gestation before many of their organs have developed, the molecules responsible for vascularization during organogenesis have not been identified. The cell-surface receptor CXCR4 is a seven-transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-coupled receptor for the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1 (for pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal-cell-derived factor), which is responsible for B-cell lymphopoiesis, bone-marrow myelopoiesis and cardiac ventricular septum formation. CXCR4 also functions as a co-receptor for T-cell-line tropic human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1. Here we report that CXCR4 is expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells, and that mice lacking CXCR4 or PBSF/SDF-1 have defective formation of the large vessels supplying the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, mice lacking CXCR4 die in utero and are defective in vascular development, haematopoiesis and cardiogenesis, like mice lacking PBSF/SDF-1, indicating that CXCR4 is a primary physiological receptor for PBSF/SDF-1. We conclude that PBSF/SDF-1 and CXCR4 define a new signalling system for organ vascularization.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic lymphokine which plays an important role in the immune system. IL-4 activates two distinct signalling pathways through tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, and of a 170K protein called 4PS. To investigate the functional role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling, we generated mice deficient in Stat6 by gene targeting. We report here that in the mutant mice, expression of CD23 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in resting B cells was not enhanced in response to IL-4. IL-4 induced B-cell proliferation costimulated by anti-IgM antibody was abolished. The T-cell proliferative response was also notably reduced. Furthermore, production of Th2 cytokines from T cells as well as IgE and IgG1 responses after nematode infection were profoundly reduced. These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been shown to mediate biological actions in response to cytokines. Stat3, a member of the STAT family, is activated by a variety of cytokines, including the interleukin 6 family of cytokines, leptin, granulocyte colonystimulating factor, and epidermal growth factor. To address the biological function of Stat3, we generated mice deficient in Stat3 by gene targeting. No viable Stat3-deficient mice could be obtained from heterozygote intercross. Analysis of embryos at several gestation times revealed that Stat3-deficient embryos showed a rapid degeneration between embryonic days 6.5 and 7.5, although they developed into the egg cylinder stage until embryonic day 6.0. These results demonstrate that Stat3 is essential for the early development of mouse embryos.Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been shown to play an important role in cytokine signaling pathways (1, 2). These proteins are tyrosinephosphorylated by Janus kinases after cytokine binding to its receptor. Once phosphorylated, STAT proteins form homo-or heterodimers, through interaction between the Src homology 2 domain and phosphorylated tyrosine, rapidly translocate to the nucleus and induce several gene expressions. Until now, six members of STAT family, Stat1 through Stat6, have been identified. Each member is shown to be activated by its specific cytokine and responsible for cytokine-mediated responses. Recent studies from mice deficient in several STAT family members have demonstrated that STAT proteins play an essential role in cytokine-mediated biological actions; Stat1 is critical for interferon-mediated actions and innate immunity (3, 4). Stat4 is essential for interleukin (IL)-12-mediated functions and Th1 cell differentiation, whereas Stat6 is for IL-4-mediated functions and Th2 cell differentiation (5-9).Stat3 was originally identified as acute phase response factor, which is activated by IL-6 family of cytokines (10,11). This molecule is shown to be important for IL-6-mediated biological effects on cultured cell lines (12,13). Further studies have demonstrated that Stat3 is activated in response to a variety of cytokines in addition to IL-6 family of cytokines. Stat3 is shown to be tyrosine-phosphorylated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cultured cells (11,14). Furthermore, leptin, a hormone that regulates satiety and energy metabolism, has been shown to induce the activation of Stat3 in the hypothalamus (15). To examine the biological functions of Stat3, we have generated Stat3-deficient mice. MATERIALS AND METHODSGeneration of Stat3-Deficient Mice. The Stat3 genomic DNA was screened from 129͞Sv mouse genomic library, subcloned into pBluescript SK vector (Stratagene), and characterized by restriction enzyme mapping and DNA sequencing as described (16). A targeting vector was designed to replace a 3.0-kb genomic fragment containing exons 20, 21, and 22 with the pMC1-neo (Stratagene). The ...
IL-18 is a cytokine that is secreted from activated macrophages and induces IFNgamma production. To investigate the in vivo role of IL-18, we generated IL-18-deficient mice. In Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-primed IL-18-deficient mice, LPS-induced IFNgamma production was markedly reduced, despite normal IL-12 induction. Natural killer cell activity was significantly impaired. Th1 cell response after injection of P. acnes or Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG]) was significantly reduced. Similar results were observed in IL-12-deficient mice. Interestingly, Th1 response was induced after BCG infection in IL-12-deficient mice. We therefore generated mice lacking both IL-18 and IL-12. In these mice, NK activity and Th1 response were further impaired. This demonstrates the important role of both IL-18 and IL-12 in NK activity, as well as in in vivo Th1 response.
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