Researchers adopting target-enrichment approaches often struggle with the decision of whether to use universal or lineage-specific probe sets. To circumvent this quandary, we investigate the efficacy of a simultaneous enrichment by combining universal probes and lineage-specific probes in a single hybridization reaction, to benefit from the qualities of both probe sets with little added cost or effort. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using 26 Brassicaceae libraries and standard enrichment protocols, we compare results from three independent data sets. A large average fraction of reads mapping to the Angiosperms353 (24-31%) and Brassicaceae (35-59%) targets resulted in a sizable reconstruction of loci for each target set (x̄ ≥ 70%).CONCLUSIONS: High levels of enrichment and locus reconstruction for the two target sets demonstrate that the sampling of genomic regions can be easily extended through the combination of probe sets in single enrichment reactions. We hope that these findings will facilitate the production of expanded data sets that answer individual research questions and simultaneously allow wider applications by the research community as a whole.
The mustard family (Brassicaceae) is a scientifically and economically important family, containing the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and numerous crop species that feed billions worldwide. Despite its relevance, most published family phylogenies are incompletely sampled, generally contain massive polytomies, and/or show incongruent topologies between datasets. Here, we present the most complete Brassicaceae genus-level family phylogenies to date (Brassicaceae Tree of Life, or BrassiToL) based on nuclear (>1,000 genes, almost all 349 genera and 53 tribes) and plastome (60 genes, 79% of the genera, all tribes) data. We found cytonuclear discordance between nuclear and plastome-derived phylogenies, which is likely a result of rampant hybridisation among closely and more distantly related species, and highlight rogue taxa. To evaluate the impact of this rampant hybridisation on the nuclear phylogeny reconstruction, we performed four different sampling routines that increasingly removed variable data and likely paralogs. Our resulting cleaned subset of 297 nuclear genes revealed high support for the tribes, while support for the main lineages remained relatively low. Calibration based on the 20 most clock-like nuclear genes suggests a late Eocene to late Oligocene icehouse origin of the family. Finally, we propose five new or re-established tribes, including the recognition of Arabidopsideae, a monotypic tribe to accommodate Arabidopsis. With a worldwide community of thousands of researchers working on this family, our new, densely sampled family phylogeny will be an indispensable tool to further highlight Brassicaceae as an excellent model family for studies on biodiversity and plant biology.
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