Background: Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES) 130/0.4 (6%) is a commonly used intravascular volume expander with antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we aimed to compare the histopathologic activity of HES 130/0.4 (6%) with various widely-used agents in pleurodesis. Methods: Forty male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: controls, povidone-iodine recipients (PI group), sterile talcum recipients (Talcum group), autologous blood recipients (AB group) and HES 130/0.4 (6%) recipients (HES group). Thirty days after application of agents, pleural and lung tissues were resected. Evaluation was performed via macroscopic scoring (adhesion) and specimens were stained with H&E for microscopic examination (inflammation and fibrosis). Results: HES recipients had significantly higher adhesion compared to controls (lower grade 0, higher grade 1 frequency vs. controls), they were found to have significantly lower frequency of grade 2 adhesion (vs. PI, Talc and AB) and grade 3 adhesion (vs. AB), indicating that the adhesion-generating properties of HES were only superior to the control group. HES recipients had significantly higher inflammatory grades compared to controls (lower grade 0, higher grade 1 frequency), while they had lower grades compared to the PI, Talc and AB groups. Although the PI, Talc and AB groups were statistically similar in most comparisons, we observed a trend towards higher success with the use of Talc and especially AB. Conclusion: Our results do not support a role for HES in pleurodesis. We believe that the autologous blood method remains as an effective and successful procedure without side effects.
Objectives: Patients with hematologic malignancies have a high risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on mortality rates in patients with various hematologic malignancies and to determine risk factors associated with all-cause mortality. Methods: A multi-center, observational retrospective analysis of patients with hematologic malignancies infected with COVID-19 between July 2020 and December 2021 was performed. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients were grouped as non-survivors and survivors. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome of the study. Results: There were 569 patients with a median age of 59 years. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22.0%) and multiple myelomas (18.1%) were the two most frequent hematologic malignancies. The all-cause mortality rate was 29.3%. The highest mortality rates were seen in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (44.3%), acute lymphoid leukemia (40.5%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (36.8%). The non-survivors were significantly older (p<0.001) and had more comorbidities (p<0.05). There were significantly more patients with low lymphocyte percentage (p<0.001), thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), and high CRP (p<0.001) in the non-survived patients. Cardiac comorbidities, (p=0.016), cytotoxic chemotherapy (p=0.024), low lymphocyte percentage (p=0.025), thrombocytopenia (p<0.0001), and high CRP values (p=0.017) were the independent risk factors for the prediction of mortality. Conclusions: In patients with hematologic malignancies, coexistent COVID-19 leads to a higher mortality rate in elderly patients with more comorbidities. Acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have the highest mortality rates. Cardiac diseases, cytotoxic chemotherapy, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP are the independent risk factors for mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with COVID-19. Keywords: Covid; Hematologic Malignancy; Cytotoxic chemotherapy.
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