Poor post‐traumatic wound healing can affect the normal function of damaged tissues and organs. For example, poor healing of corneal epithelial injuries may lead to permanent visual impairment. It is of great importance to find a therapeutic way to promote wound closure. Tetrahedral framework nucleic acids (tFNAs) are new promising nanomaterials, which can affect the biological behavior of cells. In the experiment, corneal wound healing is used as an example to explore the effect of tFNAs on wound healing. Results show that the proliferation and migration of human corneal epithelial cells are enhanced by exposure to tFNAs in vitro, possibly relevant to the activation of P38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. An animal model of corneal alkali burn is established to further identify the facilitation effect of tFNAs on corneal wound healing in vivo. Clinical evaluations and histological analyses show that tFNAs can improve the corneal transparency and accelerate the re‐epithelialization of wounds. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that tFNAs can play a positive role in corneal epithelial wound healing.
Our results showed that mechanical factors can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs via the WNT signalling pathway. This provides theoretical basis to optimize dental or bone tissue regeneration through increasing stiffness of extracelluar matrix.
Results suggested that the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs might be promoted by culturing them in a stiffness-dependent manner, which regulates the Notch pathway. This might provide a new method of enhancing osteogenesis in PDLSCs.
To explore the effects and underlying biological mechanisms of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).
Materials and methods
Real‐time cell analysis (RTCA) and CCK8 were used to screen the best concentration of TDN for PDLSCs. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were assessed after PDLSCs were treated with TDN. Data were analysed using one‐way ANOVA.
Tetrahedral DNA nanostructures could play a crucial role in accelerating the proliferation of PDLSCs and had the strongest promotive effect on PDLSCs at a concentration of 250 nmol/L. Simultaneously, the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs could be promoted significantly by TDNs and the finding displayed that the Wnt/β‐catenin signalling pathway might be the underlying biological mechanisms of TDNs on promoting the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.
Tetrahedral DNA nanostructure treatment facilitated the proliferation of PDLSCs, significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation by regulating the Wnt/β‐catenin signalling pathway. Therefore, TDNs could be a novel nanomaterial with great potential for application to PDLSC‐based bone tissue engineering.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), along with the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING), are crucial components of the innate immune system, and their study has become a research hotspot in recent years. Many biochemical and structural studies that have collectively elucidated the mechanism of activation of the cGAS-STING pathway with atomic resolution have provided insights into the roles of the cGAS-STING pathway in innate immunity and clues to the origin and evolution of the modern cGAS-STING signaling pathway. The cGAS-STING pathway has been identified to protect the host against viral infection. After detecting viral dsDNA, cGAS synthesizes a second messenger to activate STING, eliciting antiviral immune responses by promoting the expression of interferons (IFNs) and hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Recently, the cGAS-STING pathway has also been found to be involved in response to bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonia, melioidosis, tuberculosis, and sepsis. However, compared with its functions in viral infection, the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in bacterial infection is more complex and diverse since the protective and detrimental effects of type I IFN (IFN-I) on the host depend on the bacterial species and infection mode. Besides, STING activation can also affect infection prognosis through other mechanisms in different bacterial infections, independent of the IFN-I response. Interestingly, the core protein components of the mammalian cGAS-STING signaling pathway have been found in the bacterial defense system, suggesting that this widespread signaling pathway may have originated in bacteria. Here, we review recent findings related to the structures of major molecules involved in the cGAS-STING pathway and the effects of the cGAS-STING pathway in various bacterial infections and bacterial immunity, which may pave the way for the development of new antibacterial drugs that specifically kill bacteria without harmful effects on the host.
Zinc finger protein 24 (ZNF24) has been demonstrated to regulate proliferation, differentiation and migration as well as invasion in several types of cells. However, the molecular role and clinical effects of ZNF24 in prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. The present study revealed that ZNF24 expression is upregulated in PCa, and associated with tumor volume, Gleason score, pathological grade and metastasis. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays revealed that ectopic ZNF24 expression facilitated cell migration and invasion through the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In addition, colony formation and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to determine the regulatory effects of ZNF24 on proliferation. The results suggested that ZNF24 also promoted cell proliferation in PCa. ZNF24 acted as an oncogene and promoted migration, invasion and EMT of PCa cells via the regulation of Twist1.
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