The Arabidopsis thaliana secretome was analyzed by the proteomic approach, which led to the identification of secreted proteins implicated in many aspects of cell biology. We then investigated the change in the Arabidopsis secretome in response to salicylic acid and identified several proteins involved in pathogen response. One of these, a secreted lipase with a GDSL-like motif designated GDSL LIPASE1 (GLIP1), was further characterized for its function in disease resistance. glip1 plants were markedly more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola compared with the parental wild-type plants. The recombinant GLIP1 protein possessed lipase and antimicrobial activities that directly disrupt fungal spore integrity. Furthermore, GLIP1 appeared to trigger systemic resistance signaling in plants when challenged with A. brassicicola, because pretreatment of the glip1 mutant with recombinant GLIP1 protein inhibited A. brassicicola-induced cell death in both peripheral and distal leaves. Moreover, glip1 showed altered expression of defense-and ethylene-related genes. GLIP1 transcription was increased by ethephon, the ethylene releaser, but not by salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. These results suggest that GLIP1, in association with ethylene signaling, may be a critical component in plant resistance to A. brassicicola.
A multistep two-component signaling system is established as a key element of cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide evidence for a function of the two-component signaling system in cold stress response in Arabidopsis. Cold significantly induced the expression of a subset of A-type ARR genes and of GUS in Pro ARR7 :GUS transgenic Arabidopsis. AHK2 and AHK3 were found to be primarily involved in mediating cold to express A-type ARRs despite cytokinin deficiency. Cold neither significantly induced AHK2 and AHK3 expression nor altered the cytokinin contents of wild type within the 4 h during which the A-type ARR genes exhibited peak expression in response to cold, indicating that cold might induce ARR expression via the AHK2 and AHK3 proteins without alterations in cytokinin levels. The ahk2 ahk3 and ahk3 ahk4 mutants exhibited enhanced freezing tolerance compared with wild type. These ahk double mutants acclimated as efficiently to cold as did wild type. The overexpression of the cold-inducible ARR7 in Arabidopsis resulted in a hypersensitivity response to freezing temperatures under coldacclimated conditions. The expression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element target genes was not affected by ARR7 overexpression as well as in ahk double mutants. By contrast, the arr7 mutants showed increased freezing tolerance. The ahk2 ahk3 and arr7 mutants showed hypersensitive response to abscisic acid (ABA) for germination, whereas ARR7 overexpression lines exhibited insensitive response to ABA. These results suggest that AHK2 and AHK3 and the cold-inducible A-type ARRs play a negative regulatory role in cold stress signaling via inhibition of ABA response, occurring independently of the cold acclimation pathway.Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes, including cell division, cell proliferation, root and leaf differentiation, chloroplast biogenesis, and the inhibition of leaf senescence (1). Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling utilizes a multistep phospho-relay composed of a sensor kinase, a histidine phosphotransfer protein, and a response regulator similar to the TCS 2 of bacterial and yeast cells (2). A hybrid-type histidine kinase referred to as CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT1 (CKI1) is essential for megagametogenesis (3). CYTOKININ RESPONSE1 (CRE1)/ WOODEN LEG1 (WOL1)/ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 (AHK4) were shown to bind directly to a variety of natural and synthetic cytokinins in vitro with high specificity as well as in a yeast system and thus to be a primary receptor for cytokinins (4 -8). The experiments conducted using a heterologous phospho-relay system demonstrated that AHK2 and AHK3 are also cytokinin receptors. The primary functions of these Arabidopsis histidine kinase (AHK) genes involve the triggering of cell division and the maintenance of the meristematic competence of cells to prevent subsequent differentiation (9, 10). Partially redundant functions of cytokinin receptors have also been revealed in shoot growth, root development, leaf sen...
A new bisphenol monomer, 9,9-bis(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene, was synthesized and polymerized to form fluorene-based poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers containing tetra-methoxy groups (MPAES). After converting the methoxy group to the reactive hydroxyl group, the respective side-chain type sulfonated copolymers (SPAES) were obtained by sulfobutylation. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), water uptake, and proton and methanol transport for fuel cell applications. These SPAES copolymers had good overall properties as polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) materials, having high proton conductivity in the range of 0.061–0.209 and 0.146–0.365 S/cm at 30 and 80 °C (under hydrated conditions), respectively. SPAES-39 (IEC = 1.93 mequiv/g) showed higher or comparable proton conductivity than that of Nafion 117 at 50–95% RH (relative humidity). The methanol permeabilities of these membranes were in the range of 3.22 to 13.1 × 10–7 cm2/s, which is lower than Nafion (15.5 × 10–7 cm2/s). In comparison with some reported sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing pendent sulfophenyl groups, the present fluorene-based SPAES containing clustered flexible pendent aliphatic sulfonic acid groups displayed better properties, such as lower water uptake and higher proton conductivities. A combination of high proton conductivities, low water uptake, and low methanol permeabilities for selected SPAES indicates that they are good candidate proton exchange membrane materials for evaluation in fuel cell applications.
Background Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of adverse effects of prolonged wearing of personal protective equipment in healthcare workers. However, there are a few studies about the effects on skin characteristics after wearing a mask for non‐healthcare workers. In this study, we evaluated the dermatologic effects of wearing a mask on the skin over time. Materials and Method Twenty‐one healthy men and women participated in the study. All participants wore masks for 6 hours consecutively. Three measurements were taken (a) before wearing the mask, (b) after wearing the mask for 1 hour, and (c) after wearing the mask for 6 hours. Skin temperature, skin redness, sebum secretion, skin hydration, trans‐epidermal water loss, and skin elasticity were measured. Results The skin temperature, redness, hydration, and sebum secretion were changed significantly after 1 and 6 hours of wearing a mask. Skin temperature, redness, and hydration showed significant differences between the mask‐wearing area and the non–mask‐wearing area. Conclusion Mask‐wearing conditions and time can change several skin characteristics. In particular, it is revealed that the perioral area could be most affected.
Olfactory receptor (OR)-associated events are mediated by well-conserved components in the olfactory epithelium, including olfactory G-protein (Golf), adenylate cyclase III (ACIII), and olfactory marker protein (OMP). The expression of ORs has recently been observed in non-olfactory tissues where they are involved in monitoring extracellular chemical cues. The large number of OR genes and their sequence similarities illustrate the need to find an effective and simple way to detect non-olfactory OR-associated events. In addition, expression profiles and physiological functions of ORs in non-olfactory tissues are largely unknown. To overcome limitations associated with using OR as a target protein, this study used OMP with Golf and ACIII as targets to screen for potential OR-mediated sensing systems in non-olfactory tissues. Here, we show using western blotting, real-time PCR, and single as well as double immunoassays that ORs and OR-associated proteins are co-expressed in diverse tissues. The results of immunohistochemical analyses showed OMP (+) cells in mouse heart and in the following cells using the corresponding marker proteins c-kit, keratin 14, calcitonin, and GFAP in mouse tissues: interstitial cells of Cajal of the bladder, medullary thymic epithelial cells of the thymus, parafollicular cells of the thyroid, and Leydig cells of the testis. The expression of ORs in OMP (+) tissues was analyzed using a refined microarray analysis and validated with RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Three ORs (olfr544, olfr558, and olfr1386) were expressed in the OMP (+) cells of the bladder and thyroid as shown using a co-immunostaining method. Together, these results suggest that OMP is involved in the OR-mediated signal transduction cascade with olfactory canonical signaling components between the nervous and endocrine systems. The results further demonstrate that OMP immunohistochemical analysis is a useful tool for identifying expression of ORs, suggesting OMP expression is an indicator of potential OR-mediated chemoreception in non-olfactory systems.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers