Catalytic hydrogen production from renewables is a promising method for providing energy carriers in the near future. Photocatalysts capable of promoting this reaction are often composed of noble metal nanoparticles deposited on a semiconductor. The most promising semiconductor at present is TiO₂. The successful design of these catalysts relies on a thorough understanding of the role of the noble metal particle size and the TiO₂ polymorph. Here we demonstrate that Au particles in the size range 3-30 nm on TiO₂ are very active in hydrogen production from ethanol. It was found that Au particles of similar size on anatase nanoparticles delivered a rate two orders of magnitude higher than that recorded for Au on rutile nanoparticles. Surprisingly, it was also found that Au particle size does not affect the photoreaction rate over the 3-12 nm range. The high hydrogen yield observed makes these catalysts promising materials for solar conversion.
Pictorial representation of all possible dye degradation reaction in UV light initiated indirect dye degradation mechanism. This mechanism is practically more important over visible light initiated direct mechanism.
With the development of molecular marker technology in the 1980s, the fate of plant breeding has changed. Different types of molecular markers have been developed and advancement in sequencing technologies has geared crop improvement. To explore the knowledge about molecular markers, several reviews have been published in the last three decades; however, all these reviews were meant for researchers with advanced knowledge of molecular genetics. This review is intended to be a synopsis of recent developments in molecular markers and their applications in plant breeding and is devoted to early researchers with a little or no knowledge of molecular markers. The progress made in molecular plant breeding, genetics, genomic selection and genome editing has contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of molecular markers and provided deeper insights into the diversity available for crops and greatly complemented breeding stratagems. Genotyping-by-sequencing and association mapping based on next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the identification of novel genetic markers for complex and unstructured populations. Altogether, the history, the types of markers, their application in plant sciences and breeding, and some recent advancements in genomic selection and genome editing are discussed.
Owing to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity, grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are the archetypal paradigms of fruits used not only for nutritional purposes, but also for exclusive therapeutics. Grapes are a prominent and promising source of phytochemicals, especially resveratrol, a phytoalexin antioxidant found in red grapes which has both chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against various ailments. Resveratrol's role in reducing different human cancers, including breast, cervical, uterine, blood, kidney, liver, eye, bladder, thyroid, esophageal, prostate, brain, lung, skin, gastric, colon, head and neck, bone, ovarian, and cervical, has been reviewed. This review covers the literature that deals with the anti-cancer mechanism of resveratrol with special reference to antioxidant potential. Furthermore, this article summarizes the literature pertaining to resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent.
As a result of the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have enhanced there distribution of many toxic heavy metals from the earth's crust to different environmental compartments. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals is increasing worldwide, and poses a rising threat to both the environment and to human health.Plants are exposed to heavy metals from various sources: mining and refining of ores, fertilizer and pesticide applications, battery chemicals, disposal of solid wastes(including sewage sludge), irrigation with wastewater, vehicular exhaust emissions and adjacent industrial activity.Heavy metals induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants, either directly or indirectly, and cause various damaging effects. The most frequently documented and earliest consequence of heavy metal toxicity in plants cells is the overproduction of ROS. Unlike redox-active metals such as iron and copper, heavy metals (e.g, Pb, Cd, Ni, AI, Mn and Zn) cannot generate ROS directly by participating in biological redox reactions such as Haber Weiss/Fenton reactions. However, these metals induce ROS generation via different indirect mechanisms, such as stimulating the activity of NADPH oxidases, displacing essential cations from specific binding sites of enzymes and inhibiting enzymatic activities from their affinity for -SH groups on the enzyme.Under normal conditions, ROS play several essential roles in regulating the expression of different genes. Reactive oxygen species control numerous processes like the cell cycle, plant growth, abiotic stress responses, systemic signalling, programmed cell death, pathogen defence and development. Enhanced generation of these species from heavy metal toxicity deteriorates the intrinsic antioxidant defense system of cells, and causes oxidative stress. Cells with oxidative stress display various chemical,biological and physiological toxic symptoms as a result of the interaction between ROS and biomolecules. Heavy-metal-induced ROS cause lipid peroxidation, membrane dismantling and damage to DNA, protein and carbohydrates. Plants have very well-organized defense systems, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation processes. The primary defense mechanism for heavy metal detoxification is the reduced absorption of these metals into plants or their sequestration in root cells.Secondary heavy metal tolerance mechanisms include activation of antioxidant enzymes and the binding of heavy metals by phytochelatins, glutathione and amino acids. These defense systems work in combination to manage the cascades of oxidative stress and to defend plant cells from the toxic effects of ROS.In this review, we summarized the biochemiCal processes involved in the over production of ROS as an aftermath to heavy metal exposure. We also described the ROS scavenging process that is associated with the antioxidant defense machinery.Despite considerable progress in understanding the biochemistry of ROS overproduction and scavenging, we still lack in-depth...
Alterations in synaptic protein stoichiometry may contribute to neocortical synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether perturbations in synaptic protein expression occur during the earliest stages of cognitive decline remain unclear. We examined protein levels of synaptophysin (SYP), synaptotagmin (SYT), and drebrin (DRB) in 5 neocortical regions (anterior cingulate, superior frontal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, and visual) of people clinically diagnosed with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild/moderate AD, or severe AD. Normalized SYP levels were decreased approximately 35% in the superior temporal and inferior parietal cortex in severe AD compared with NCI. SYT levels were unchanged across clinical diagnosis in the cortical regions. Levels of DRB, a dendritic spine plasticity marker, were reduced approximately 40% to 60% in all cortical regions in AD compared with NCI. DRB protein was also reduced approximately 35% in the superior temporal cortex of MCI subjects, and DRB and SYP levels in the superior temporal cortex correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination and Braak scores. In contrast, DRB levels in the superior frontal cortex increased approximately 30% in MCI subjects. The differential changes in DRB expression in the frontal and temporal cortex in MCI suggest a disparity of dendritic plasticity within these regions that may contribute to the early impairment of temporal cortical functions subserving memory and language compared with the relative preservation of frontal cortical executive function during the initial stages of cognitive decline.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers