Authors' Contribution SMH supervised the project and provided the facilities for the research. MZHA collected the data and compiled and analyzed the results. AJ helped in statistical analysis. AIH analyzed the nutrients. NA did biochemical analysis. QA analyzed the data statistically and interpreted the results. MH collected the samples. MMHR prepared the manuscript. MMS helped in research work and collection of growth data. AK assisted in collection of fecal matter. DR conducted feeding trials.
Authors' Contribution MMS conducted the research and wrote the manuscript. SMH planned and supervised the research. FJ provided the research facilities. MIH helped in chemical analysis of minerals. AJ helped in statistical analysis and interpretation of the results. MA helped in manuscript preparation. MZHA helped in conducting feeding trial and feces collection.
This research work was conducted in specially designed fecal collecting V-shaped tanks having capacity of 70 liters to determine the synergistic effects of citric acid (CA) and phytase enzyme on the nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on corn gluten (30%) meal based diets. Nine test diets along with reference were prepared with phytase of 0, 500 and 1000 FTU kg)¹- and CA 0g (0%), 75g (2.5%) and 150g (5%).Fingerlings were fed twice daily up to 5% of their body weights and fecal material was collected regularly for chemical analysis. Results of present work go in favor of diets supplemented with phytase and CA. Current research clearly hypothesized that phytase enzyme along with CA enhanced nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on plant based diet. It was observed that maximum nutrient digestibility percentage dry matter 29%, crude protein 69%, crude fat 73% and gross energy is 70% shown by fingerlings fed on diet having phytase 500 FTU kg¹- combined with CA 5%. In conclusion Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on diet having phytase 500 FTU kg¹- combined with CA 5% release nutrients from phytate complexes in plant based diets thus enhance nutrient digestibility, growth rate and release less nutrients through feces thus reduce chances of aquatic pollution.
The most frequently reported genetic aberration among polycythemia vera (PV) patients is a gain of function mutation V617F in exon 14 of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. However in many investigations, V617F negative PV patients have been reported to harbor mutations in JAK 2 exon 12. We investigated 24 patients with PV (diagnosed following 2016 WHO guidelines) to detect V617F mutation through allele specific PCR. The frequency of which was found to be 19/24 (79.2 %). Later on JAK2 exon 12 and 14 was amplified by conventional PCR in V617F negative patients and subjected to sequence analysis. A total of 03 mutated sites in exon 12 were detected in only two V617F-negative patients 2/5 (40%). All three substitutions were heterozygous i.e. F537F/I found in both patients and R528R/T, which is a novel mutation. In addition, one patient 1/5 (10%) manifested amino acid substitution V617A in JAK2 exon 14. Hematological parameters of individuals harboring mutations do not vary significantly than rest of the PV patients. Previous history and 2.3 years of follow-up studies reveal 15-year survival of V617F positive patients (n=19) to be 76%, while it is 94% for wild type V617 patients (n=05). Mean TLC of the patient cohort was 17.6± 9.1 x 109/L, mean platelet count was 552± 253 x 109/L, mean hemoglobin was 16.9± 3.2 g/dl, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 77.2± 13.0 fl and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) was 25.6± 3.9 pg. This is the very first attempt from Pakistan to screen JAK2-exon 12 mutations in PV patients. We further aim to investigate Jak2 exon 12 mutations in larger number of PV patients to assess their clinical relevance and role in disease onset, progression and transformation.
Sunflower meal based diet supplemented with selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) atlevels of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg kg-1 were fed common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758) fingerlings in a seventy days feeding trial, to examine the effects on growth, nutrient digestibility and heamatology. Triplicate tanks were used and each tank contained 15 fingerlings that were subjected to experimental feeding at 4% of their live wet weight. A non-digestible marker, chromic oxide was added in the feed at 1% level. Growth performance in terms of weight gain %, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) as well as nutrient digestibility (crude protein, crude fat, gross energy) were estimated following standard methods/standard formulae. Maximum weight gain% (210%), SGR (1.26) and best FCR (1.26) as well as highest nutrient digestibility (crude protein 71%, crude fat 72% and gross energy 70%) were observed in fish fed test diet III supplemented with 2 mg kg-1 Se NPs These results showed that, Se nanoparticles supplementation at the rate of 2 mg kg-1 level is beneficial for improvement of growth in C. carpio fingerlings.
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