We present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the absorption spectra of silver clusters Ag n ͑4 Յ n Յ 22͒. The experimental spectra of clusters isolated in an Ar matrix are compared with the calculated ones in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory. The analysis of the molecular transitions indicates that the s-electrons are responsible for the optical response of small clusters ͑n Յ 8͒ while the d-electrons play a crucial role in the optical excitations for larger n values.
Distinct photocatalytic performance was observed when Ta 3 N 5 was synthesized from commercially available Ta 2 O 5 or from Ta 2 O 5 prepared from TaCl 5 via the sol−gel route. With respect to photocatalytic O 2 evolution with Ag + as a sacrificial reagent, the Ta 3 N 5 produced from commercial Ta 2 O 5 exhibited higher activity than the Ta 3 N 5 produced via the sol−gel route. When the Ta 3 N 5 photocatalysts were decorated with Pt nanoparticles in a similar manner, the Ta 3 N 5 from the sol−gel route exhibited higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity from a 10% aqueous methanol solution than Ta 3 N 5 prepared from commercial Ta 2 O 5 where no hydrogen can be detected. Detailed surface and bulk characterizations were conducted to obtain fundamental insight into the resulting photocatalytic activities. The characterization techniques, including XRD, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, UV−vis spectroscopy, and surface-area measurements, revealed only negligible differences between these two photocatalysts. Our thorough characterization of the surface properties demonstrated that the very thin outermost layer of Ta 3 N 5 , with a thickness of a few nanometers, consists of either the reduced state of tantalum (TaN) or an amorphous phase. The extent of this surface layer was likely dependent on the nature of precursor oxide surfaces. DFT calculations based on partially oxidized Ta 3 N 4.83 O 0.17 and N deficient Ta 3 N 4.83 consisting of reduced Ta species well described the optoelectrochemical properties obtained from the experiments. Electrochemical and Mott−Schottky analyses demonstrated that the surface layer drastically affects the energetic picture at the semiconductor−electrolyte interface, which can consequently affect the photocatalytic performance. Chemical etching of the surface of Ta 3 N 5 particles to remove this surface layer unites the photocatalytic properties with the photocatalytic performance of these two materials. Mott−Schottky plots of these chemically etched Ta 3 N 5 materials exhibited similar characteristics. This result suggests that the surface layer (1−2 nm) determines the electrochemical interface, which explains the different photocatalytic performances of these two materials.
The photocatalytic water splitting technique is a promising alternative to produce hydrogen using a facile and proficient method. In the current Review, recent progress made in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using 2D nanomaterials (NMs) and composite heterostructures is described. The strong in-plane chemical bonds along with weak van der Waals interaction make these materials lucrative for surface-related applications. State-of-the-art protocols designed for the synthesis of 2D NMs is discussed in detail. The Review illustrates density functional theory (DFT)-based studies against the new set of 2D NMs, which also highlights the importance of structural defects and doping in the electronic structure. Additionally, the Review describes the influence of electronic, structural, and surface manipulation strategies. These impact the electronic structures, intrinsic conductivity, and finally output toward HER. Moreover, this Review also provides a fresh perspective on the prospects and challenges existing behind the application and fabrication strategies.
Widespread application of solar water splitting for energy conversion is largely dependent on the progress in developing not only efficient, but also cheap and scalable photoelectrodes. Metal oxides, which can be deposited with scalable techniques and are relatively cheap, are particularly interesting, but high efficiency is still hindered by the poor carrier transport properties (i.e., carrier mobility and lifetime). In this paper, a mild hydrogen treatment is introduced to bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), which is one of the most promising metal oxide photoelectrodes, as a method to overcome the carrier transport limitations. Timeresolved microwave and terahertz conductivity measurements reveal more than two-fold enhancement of the carrier lifetime for the hydrogen-treated BiVO4, without significantly affecting the carrier mobility. This is in contrast to the case of tungsten-doped BiVO4, although hydrogen is also shown to be a donor type dopant in BiVO4. The enhancement in carrier lifetime is found to be caused by significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation of deep trap states or reduction of trap state density, which can be related to vanadium anti-site on bismuth or vanadium interstitials according to density functional theory calculations. Overall, these findings provide further insights on the interplay between defect modulation and carrier transport in metal oxide photoelectrodes, which will benefit the development of low-cost, highly-efficient solar energy conversion devices.
Single atom catalysis (SAC) is a recent discipline of heterogeneous catalysis for which a single atom on a surface is able to carry out various catalytic reactions. A kind of revolution in heterogeneous catalysis by metals for which it was assumed that specific sites or defects of a nanoparticle were necessary to activate substrates in catalytic reactions. In another extreme of the spectrum, surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC), and, by extension, surface organometallic catalysis (SOMCat), have demonstrated that single atoms on a surface, but this time with specific ligands, could lead to a more predictive approach in heterogeneous catalysis. The predictive character of SOMCat was just the result of intuitive mechanisms derived from the elementary steps of molecular chemistry. This review article will compare the aspects of single atom catalysis and surface organometallic catalysis by considering several specific catalytic reactions, some of which exist for both fields, whereas others might see mutual overlap in the future. After a definition of both domains, a detailed approach of the methods, mostly modeling and spectroscopy, will be followed by a detailed analysis of catalytic reactions: hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, oxidative dehydrogenation, alkane and cycloalkane metathesis, methane activation, metathetic oxidation, CO 2 activation to cyclic carbonates, imine metathesis, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions. A prospective resulting from present knowledge is showing the emergence of a new discipline from the overlap between the two areas.
The electrochemical N2 reduction reaction (NRR) offers a direct pathway to produce NH3 from renewable energy. However, aqueous NRR suffers from both low Faradaic efficiency (FE) and low yield rate. The main reason is the more favored H+ reduction to H2 in aqueous electrolytes. Here we demonstrate a highly selective Ru/MoS2 NRR catalyst on which the MoS2 polymorphs can be controlled to suppress H+ reduction. A NRR FE as high as 17.6% and NH3 yield rate of 1.14 × 10–10 mol cm–2 s–1 are demonstrated at 50 °C. Theoretical evidence supports a hypothesis that the high NRR activity originates from the synergistic interplay between the Ru clusters as N2 binding sites and nearby isolated S-vacancies on the 2H-MoS2 as centers for hydrogenation; this supports formation of NH3 at the Ru/2H-MoS2 interface.
Extension of the absorption properties of TiO2 photocatalytic materials to the visible part of the solar spectrum is of major importance for energy and cleaning up applications. We carry out a systematic study of the N-doped anatase TiO2 material using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) and the range-separated hybrid HSE06 functional. The thermodynamic stability of competitive N-doped TiO2 structural configurations is studied as a function of the oxygen chemical potential and of various chemical doping agents: N2, (N2 + H2), NH3, N2H4. We show that the diamagnetic TiO(2–3x)N2x system corresponding to a separated substitutional N species (with 2–4% N impurities) and formation of one-half concentration of O vacancies (1–2 atom %) is an optimal configuration thermodynamically favored by NH3, N2H4, and (N2 + H2) chemical doping agents presenting a dual nitrating–reducing character. The simulated UV–vis absorption spectra using the perturbation theory (DFPT) approach demonstrates unambiguously that the diamagnetic TiO(2–3x)N2x system exhibits the enhanced optical absorption in N-doped TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Electronic analysis further reveals a band gap narrowing of 0.6 eV induced by delocalized impurity states located at the top of the valence band of TiO2. A fruitful comparison with experimental data is furnished.
Finding an ideal photocatalyst for achieving efficient overall water splitting still remains a great challenge. By applying accurate first-principles quantum calculations based on DFT with the screened non-local hybrid HSE06 functional, we bring rational insights at the atomic level into the influence of non-stoichiometric compositions on essential properties of tantalum (oxy)nitride compounds as visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for water splitting. Indeed, recent experiments show that such non-stoichiometry is inherent to the nitridation methods of tantalum oxide with unavoidable oxygen impurities. We considered here O-enriched Ta3N5 and N-enriched TaON materials. Although their structural parameters are found to be very similar to those of pure compounds and in good agreement with available experimental studies, their photocatalytic features for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions show different behaviors. Further partial nitration of TaON leads to a narrowed band gap, but partially oxidizing Ta3N5 causes only subtle changes in the gap. The main influence, however, is on the band edge positions relative to water redox potentials. The pure Ta3N5 is predicted to be a good candidate only for H(+) reduction and H2 evolution, while the pure TaON is predicted to be a good candidate for water oxidation and O2 evolution. Non-stoichiometry has here a positive influence, since partially oxidized tantalum nitride, Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x (for x≥ 0.16) i.e. with a composition in between TaON and Ta3N5, reveals suitable band edge positions that correctly bracket the water redox potentials for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions. Among the various explored Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x structures, a strong stabilization is obtained for the configuration displaying a strong interaction between the O-impurities and the created Ta-vacancies. In the lowest-energy structure, each created Ta-vacancy is surrounded by five O-impurity species substituting the five N sites characterizing one octahedral environment.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers