Type III open tibia fractures from combat unite in 80.3% of cases at an average of 9.2 months. We recorded a 27% deep infection rate and a 22% amputation rate. The G/A type is associated with development of deep infection, need for amputation, and time to union. Positive surveillance cultures are associated with development of deep infection, osteomyelitis, and ultimate need for amputation. Surveillance cultures were not predictive of the infecting organism if a deep infection subsequently develops.
Electron paramagnetic resonance ͑EPR͒ in iron-oxide nanoparticles ͑ϳ2.5 nm͒ embedded in a polyethylene matrix reveals the sharp line broadening and the resonance field shift on sample cooling below T F Ϸ40 K. At the same temperature a distinct anomaly in the field-cooled magnetization is detected. The temperature dependences of EPR parameters below T F are definitely different than those found for various nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic regime. In contrast to canonical bulk spin glasses, a linear fall-off of the EPR linewidth is observed. Such behavior can be explained in terms of the random-field model of exchange anisotropy.
Theoretical studies to investigate the effect of H absorption on the magnetic moment of small Fe n and Co n clusters have been carried out using gradient corrected density-functional approach. Our studies on clusters containing up to four transition metal and 2 H atoms show that the successive addition of H atoms can lead to monotonic or oscillatory change from the free cluster magnetic moment. A detailed analysis of the density of electronic states shows that the variations in the magnetic moment can be related to the location of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in the parent cluster. It is shown that the addition of hydrogen can substantially change the magnetic anisotropy. In particular Co 3 H 2 is shown to exhibit magnetic anisotropy that is higher than any of the known anisotropies in the molecular nanomagnets.
Fractures of the distal femur, even those with articular extension, are well suited to surgical fixation with modern precontoured anatomic plates and nails. Numerous adjuvant techniques are available to the treating surgeon to obtain and maintain reduction while preserving fracture biology. Yet despite their proven track record and benefits over older implants, technical errors are common and must be overcome with proper preoperative planning and intraoperative attention to detail. This review summarizes the current state of the art regarding distal femur fractures, with an emphasis on relevant modern plate and nail surgical techniques, tempered by our current understanding of implant biomechanics, fracture healing, and long-term outcomes.
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