. (2016). Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30 (2), Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has longterm effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats AbstractChildhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats.
BackgroundSecond generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce glucometabolic side-effects, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which pose a therapeutic challenge for mental illness. Sphingolipids play a role in glycaemic balance and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to impaired insulin signalling and whole-body glucose intolerance. Diabetogenic SGA effects on ER stress and sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingomyelin, in peripheral metabolic tissues are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of clozapine and olanzapine on ceramide and sphingomyelin levels, and protein expression of key enzymes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, in the liver and skeletal muscle.MethodsFemale rats were administered olanzapine (1 mg/kg), clozapine (12 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) and euthanized 1-h later. Ceramide and sphingomyelin levels were examined using electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. Expression of lipid enzymes (ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2), elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 1 (ELOVL1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1)), ER stress markers (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2α) were also examined.ResultsClozapine caused robust reductions in hepatic ceramide and sphingolipid levels (p < 0.0001), upregulated CerS2 (p < 0.05) and ELOVL1 (+ 37%) and induced significant hyperglycemia (vs controls). In contrast, olanzapine increased hepatic sphingomyelin levels (p < 0.05 vs controls). SGAs did not alter sphingolipid levels in the muscle. Clozapine increased (+ 52.5%) hepatic eIF2α phosphorylation, demonstrating evidence of activation of the PERK/eIF2α ER stress axis. Hepatic IRE1, FAS and ACC1 were unaltered.ConclusionsThis study provides the first evidence that diabetogenic SGAs disrupt hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis within 1-h of administration. Sphingolipids may be key candidates in the mechanisms underlying the diabetes side-effects of SGAs; however, further research is required.
Following on the success of Aripiprazole with its high clinical efficacy and minimal side effects, further antipsychotic drugs (such as Bifeprunox) have been developed based on the same dopamine D2 partial agonist pharmacological profile as Aripiprazole. However clinical trials of Bifeprunox have found differing results to that of its predecessor, without the same significant clinical efficacy. This study has therefore investigated the different effects of 10 week treatment with Aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, 3 times per day), Bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, 3 times per day) and Haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, 3 times per day) on body weight gain, food and water intake, white fat mass, and 8 week treatment on locomotor activity. Treatment with Bifeprunox was found to significantly reduce all of the measured parameters except white fat mass compared to the control group. However, Aripiprazole and Haloperidol treatment reduced water intake compared to the control, without any significant effects on the other measured parameters. These findings further demonstrate the potential pharmacological differences between Aripiprazole and Bifeprunox, and identify potential weight loss side effects and increased anxiety behaviour with Bifeprunox treatment.
Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D1 and D2 receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography. Aripiprazole decreased TH and D1 receptor levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and p-TH levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of females, whilst TH levels decreased in the PFC of males. Olanzapine decreased PFC p-TH levels and increased D2 receptor expression in the PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females only. Additionally, risperidone treatment increased D1 receptor levels in the hippocampus of females, whilst, in males, p-TH levels increased in the PFC and hippocampus, D1 receptor expression decreased in the NAc, and DAT levels decreased in the caudate putamen (CPu), and elevated in the VTA. These results suggest that early treatment with various APDs can cause different long-term alterations in the adult brain, across both treatment groups and genders.
BackgroundAntipsychotic drug (APD) prescription/use in children has increased significantly worldwide, despite limited insight into potential long-term effects of treatment on adult brain functioning. While initial long-term studies have uncovered alterations to behaviors following early APD treatment, further investigations into potential changes to receptor density levels of related neurotransmitter (NT) systems are required.MethodsThe current investigation utilized an animal model for early APD treatment with aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone in male and female juvenile rats to investigate potential long-term changes to the adult serotonin (5-HT) NT system. Levels of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and hippocampus via Western Blot and receptor autoradiography.ResultsIn the male cohort, long-term changes to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors were found mostly across hippocampal and cortical brain regions following early aripiprazole and olanzapine treatment, while early risperidone treatment changed 5-HT1A receptor levels in the NAc and PFC. Lesser effects were uncovered in the female cohort with aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone to alter 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in NAc and hippocampal brain regions, respectively.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that early treatment of various APDs in juvenile rats may cause gender and brain regional specific changes in 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the adult brain.
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