Purpose-By constantly working in environments with high degree of uncertainty, humanitarian organizations end up becoming specialists in the implementation of agile systems. Their counterparts in profit-making organizations have a lot to learn from them in this domain. Volatility of demand, imbalance between supply and demand and disruptions are all factors that affect commercial supply chains and call for a high level of agility. The aims of this paper are twofold: first, to clearly define the concept of supply chain agility, and second, to build a model for assessing the level of agility of a supply chain. Design/methodology/approach-Three approaches are used in this research: literature review, case study and symbolic modeling. Findings-The paper developed first, a framework for defining supply chain agility and second, a model for assessing and improving the capabilities of humanitarian and commercial supply chains in terms of agility, based on an analysis of humanitarian approaches. Research limitations/implications-The model has been developed thanks to inputs from humanitarian practitioners and feedbacks from academics. The practical application to various humanitarian relief operations and commercial supply chains is yet to be done. Originality/value-This paper contributes significantly to clarifying the notion of supply chain agility. It also provides a consistent, robust and reproducible method of assessing supply chain agility, which seems appropriate for both humanitarian and business sectors. Finally, it is complementary to existant research on humanitarian logistics. It shows that though humanitarian professionals have a lot to learn from the private sector, the reverse is also true.
Purpose-From a continuous improvement perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of maturity attained by organisations in reporting their supply chain (as well as non-supply chain) sustainability initiatives. It also investigates the extent to which supply chain sustainability (SCS) disclosure varies between different business sectors, as well as the degree of interconnection between various sustainability criteria. Subsequently, it proposes an improvement framework for reporting and implementing sustainability initiatives across the supply chain. Design/methodology/approach-To carry out this investigation, corporate sustainability reports of selected companies in ten different industries are downloaded and assessed. The paper uses content analysis and principal component analysis to study the disclosure maturity levels of the different industrial sectors. Findings-The paper's results show that the disclosure maturity level is higher in business-toconsumer industries than in business-to-business industries on both the social and environmental dimensions. The paper also shows that the highly polluting energy sector is the least advanced in disclosing SCS initiatives. Generally speaking, there is no clear pattern in the way organisations disclose sustainability information. The conclusion is that sustainability disclosure is not yet homogeneously structured across different business sectors and organisations are yet to attain the "adult" maturity age. Originality/value-Very few researchers can claim to have investigated the maturity levels of SCS disclosure from a continuous improvement perspective. This is probably due to the absence of a universally accepted framework that clearly defines the scope of sustainability. The paper tries to fill this gap by proposing a framework that would not only help researchers to study SCS and stakeholders to read sustainability reports, but would also enable practitioners to improve the quality and reliability of the data disclosed, especially as they apply to the supply chain.
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. AbstractHumanitarian supply chains (HSCs) play a central role in effective and efficient disaster relief operations. Transportation has a critical share in HSCs and managing its risks helps to avoid further disruptions in relief operations. However, there is no common approach to or culture of risk management that its applicability has been studied through recent cases. This paper incorporates an empirical research design and makes a threefold contribution: first it identifies in-country transportation risks during Nepal response. Second, we evaluate afore identified risks through an expert driven risk assessment grid. Third, we use our field data to study how some humanitarian organizations in Nepal response used logistics service providers for managing those moderate-and high-level risks.In this paper, we use both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our qualitative analysis reveals that some of the most important in-country transportation risks were delivery delays; market fluctuations; insufficient capacity; loss of cargo; cargo decay; unreliable information; and ethical concerns. Our quantitative work shows that while participants categorized the first three risks as high-level risks, the rest were ranked as moderate-level. More investigation in our field data indicates that using logistics service providers (LSPs) helped humanitarians significantly to manage afore in-country transportation risks during Nepal response. It also improved overall HSC performance with respect to flexibility, effectiveness, efficiency, and responsiveness. While this finding empirically confirms the "tools" role of LSPs for managing in-country transportation risks in response, it implies another role for LSPs; "contributors" to performance improvements.
International audienceIncreasingly, humanitarian organizations have opened regional warehouses and pre-positioned resources locally. Choosing appropriate locations is not easy and frequently based on opportunities rather than rational decisions. Dedicated decision-support systems could help humanitarian practitioners design their supply networks. Academic literature suggests the use of commercial sector models but rarely considers the constraints and specific context of humanitarian operations, such as obtaining accurate data, high uncertainties, limited budgets and increasing pressure on cost efficiency. We propose a tooled methodology to properly support humanitarian decision makers in the design of their supply chains. Our contribution is based on the definition of aggregate scenarios to reliably forecast demand using past disaster data and future trends. Demand for relief items based on these scenarios is then fed to a mixed-integer linear programming model in order to improve current supply networks. The specifications of this model have been defined in close collaboration with humanitarian workers. The model allows analysis of the impact of alternative sourcing strategies and service level requirements on operational efficiency. It provides clear and actionable recommendations for a given context, bridging the gap between academics and humanitarian logisticians. The methodology was developed to be useful to a broad range of humanitarian organizations, and a specific application to the supply chain design of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is discussed in detail
International audienceThis paper discusses the difficulty of controlling a complex project caused by the great number of performance indicators. The problem studied is how to allow project managers to better control the performance of their projects. From a literature review we noted several critical aspects to this problem: there are many dimensions for evaluating project performance (cost, time, quality, risk, etc.); performance factors should be able to be relevantly aggregated for controlling the project, but no formalized tool exists to do this. We suggest a method to facilitate project performance analysis via a multi-criteria approach. The method focuses on three particular axes for the analysis of project performance: project task, performance indicator categories, and a breakdown of the performance triptych (Effectiveness, Efficiency, Relevance). Finally, the MACBETH method is used to aggregate performance expressions. An application case study examining a real project management situation is included to illustrate the implementation
Demand driven material requirements planning or DDMRP is a recent and promising material management method that has been developed and implemented in the practitioner world. Essentially, DDMRP represents a rethinking of the basic MRP logic. By incorporating elements drawn from Lean Systems and the Theory of Constraints and by introducing new features such as dynamic buffers, DDMRP modifies the basic MRP logic so that it is better able to satisfy customer demands in an increasingly demanding, turbulent and dynamic environment. Claims have been made by firms that DDMRP represents a superior planning approach. In this paper, we introduce and explore DDMRP. In addition, we evaluate its effectiveness relative to two other widely accepted approaches -MRP II and Kanban/Lean productionthrough a series of structured computer simulation experiments. The results strongly indicate that DDMRP does represent a superior approachone that warrants further academic study.
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