Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with mesenchymal lineage differentiation. The discovery of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusions as tissue-agnostic oncogenic drivers has led to new personalized therapies for a subset of patients with sarcoma in the form of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors. NTRK gene rearrangements and fusion transcripts can be detected with different molecular pathology techniques, while TRK protein expression can be demonstrated with immunohistochemistry. The rarity and diagnostic complexity of NTRK gene fusions raise a number of questions and challenges for clinicians. To address these challenges, the World Sarcoma Network convened two meetings of expert adult oncologists and pathologists and subsequently developed this article to provide practical guidance on the management of patients with sarcoma harboring NTRK gene fusions. We propose a diagnostic strategy that considers disease stage and histologic and molecular subtypes to facilitate routine testing for TRK expression and subsequent testing for NTRK gene fusions.
In this real-world GIST registry, patients with advanced GIST were treated with imatinib and patients with localised GIST received surgical resection, in accordance with prevailing clinical recommendations.
Malignant melanoma represents the most aggressive type of skin cancer. Modern therapies, including targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors, have changed the dismal prognosis that characterized this disease. However, most evidence was obtained by studying patients with frequent subtypes of cutaneous melanoma (CM). Consequently, there is an emerging need to understand the molecular basis and treatment approaches for unusual melanoma subtypes. Even a standardized definition of infrequent or rare melanoma is not clearly established. For that reason, we reviewed this challenging topic considering clinical and molecular perspectives, including uncommon CMs—not associated with classical V600E/K BRAF mutations—malignant mucosal and uveal melanomas, and some unusual independent entities, such as amelanotic, desmoplastic, or spitzoid melanomas. Finally, we collected information regarding melanomas from non-traditional primary sites, which emerge from locations as unique as meninges, dermis, lymph nodes, the esophagus, and breasts. The aim of this review is to summarize and highlight the main scientific evidence regarding rare melanomas, with a particular focus on treatment perspectives.
Background. The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in collision between patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and those with cancer on different fronts. Patients with cancer have been impacted by deferral, modification, and even cessation of therapy. Adaptive measures to minimize hospital exposure, following the precautionary principle, have been proposed for cancer care during COVID-19 era. We present here a consensus on prioritizing recommendations across the continuum of sarcoma patient care. Material and Methods. A total of 125 recommendations were proposed in soft-tissue, bone, and visceral sarcoma care. Recommendations were assigned as higher or lower priority if they cannot or can be postponed at least 2-3 months, respectively. The
BackgroundSunitinib is an approved treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The safety profile and efficacy of sunitinib were confirmed in a global expanded access trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00130897). This report presents a subanalysis of the final trial data from patients in Latin America.MethodsTreatment-naïve or previously treated mRCC patients aged ≥18 years received oral sunitinib at a starting dose of 50 mg/day on a 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off schedule. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Safety was assessed regularly, and tumor measurements were scheduled per local practice (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors).ResultsIn total, 348 patients from Latin America received sunitinib. Overall, 75% of patients had two or more sites of metastatic disease, 28% were aged ≥65 years, 14% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, 9% had brain metastases, 9% had no prior nephrectomy, and 5% had non-clear cell RCC. Median treatment duration was 8 months, and median follow-up was 15.1 months. In total, 326 patients (94%) discontinued treatment, primarily due to death (41%) or lack of efficacy (22%). Most treatment-related adverse events were of mild to moderate severity (grade 1/2). Mucosal inflammation (reported in 54% of patients), diarrhea (53%), and asthenia (41%) were the most common any-grade treatment-related adverse events. Asthenia (12%), neutropenia (10%), and fatigue and thrombocytopenia (both 9%) were the most common grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events. In total, 311 patients were included for tumor response, of whom eight (3%) had a complete response and 46 (15%) a partial response, yielding an objective response rate of 17%. Median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 26.7, 12.1, and 16.9 months, respectively.ConclusionThe efficacy and safety profile of sunitinib in patients with mRCC from Latin America was comparable to that in the entire cohort of the global expanded access trial.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of modern cancer drugs in the adjuvant setting to determine the incidence of severe adverse events reported in placebo groups.
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