The minimal cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB) circuit, a closed system with neither cardiotomy suction nor an open venous reservoir and thus no air-blood interface, reportedly reduces blood loss and inflammatory reactions associated with coronary bypass surgery. We evaluated the inflammatory reactions in patients in whom coronary bypass operations were performed with conventional CPB or mini-CPB (n=15 each). Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and neutrophil elastase levels; the neutrophil count; and the C-reactive protein value were measured before and immediately after surgery and on postoperative days 1 and 2. In addition, intraoperative blood loss and the transfusion volume were evaluated in these groups. Neutrophil elastase levels were lower in the mini-CPB group than in the conventional group on postoperative days 1 (127 +/- 52 vs. 240 +/- 100 microg/l, P=0.013) and 2 (107 +/- 17 vs. 170 +/- 45 micro/l, P=0.0001), as was the IL-8 level on postoperative day 1 (8.3 +/- 6.4 vs. 19 +/- 11 pg/ml, P=0.016). The intraoperative blood loss and transfusion volumes were significantly lower in the mini-CPB group than in the conventional group (510 +/- 244 vs. 1046 +/- 966 ml, P=0.012, and 691 +/- 427 vs. 1416 +/- 918 ml, P=0.0033). Thus, mini-CPB appears to attenuate neutrophil activation and cytokine release after coronary bypass surgery and, in addition, has some beneficial effects on blood conservation.
The main cause of occlusion and graft failure after peripheral and cardiac arterial reconstruction is IH. The study of the mechanisms and mediators of IH, including TGF-beta1, should lead to future gene therapies to prevent or limit IH. The clinical effect of such treatments would be enormous, because they would increase graft longevity, thereby enhancing quality of life and enabling patients to live without the threat of limb loss or recurrent heart attack.
Previous studies have examined outcomes in dialysis patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, only a few studies have solely focused on outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to clarify independent predictors of the long-term survival of dialysis patients with AVR and to determine whether a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis is suitable based on the patient's condition. A total of 38 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent AVR at our institute were reviewed (mean age 69.1 ± 9.4 years). There were 23 bioprostheses and 15 mechanical valve replacements. The operative mortality and the long-term survival were not different between the bioprosthesis and the mechanical valve group (13.0 vs. 13.3%). The significant multivariate predictors for long-term survival were concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and prosthesis size. Valve types and age at operation did not affect long-term survival. Five-year survival of patients with small prosthetic valves and concomitant CABG was 0%. When the patient's quality of life is taken into account, it may be appropriate to use a bioprosthesis in a dialysis patient with a small annulus and concomitant CABG even if the patient is young.
Although most cases required extended procedures for late reoperation after repair of acute AAD, reoperations can be performed safely by careful choice of appropriate operative methods and strategies. Our data suggest that ascending aortic replacement is an effective initial procedure for patients with acute AAD.
Although chest computed tomography (CT) is useful for identifying ascending aortic calcification before surgery, the efficacy of routine preoperative CT in cardiac surgery is unknown. We sought to clarify the role of routine preoperative chest CT for the determination of ascending aortic calcification before cardiac surgery to aid in the prevention of stroke. Three hundred consecutive patients who underwent elective cardiac operations excluding thoracic aortic surgery had preoperative non-contrast CT. Thirteen patients (4.3%) had severe calcification in the ascending aorta which required alteration of the cannulation site. Univariate analysis showed preoperative renal dysfunction, dialysis and aortic stenosis as predictors for ascending aortic calcification, but not history of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and age. In multivariate analysis, aortic stenosis was found as the only predictor. The prevalence of severe ascending aortic calcification was 11.9% (10/84) in patients with aortic stenosis. Stroke occurred in two (0.67%) of the patients in the entire group but none in the 13 patients with surgical modification. For patients with aortic stenosis or hemodialysis, a low postoperative stroke rate can be achieved in elective cardiac surgery by use of routine preoperative chest CT to identify patients with ascending aortic calcification who require modification of the surgical technique.
Elephant trunk more than 10 cm from the left subclavian artery was associated with increased risk of spinal cord injury. We recommend short elephant trunk or long elephant trunk with preservation of the Adamkiewicz artery to prevent spinal cord injury in patients having total arch replacement.
We studied 279 patients who underwent mitral valve replacement at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, between November 1973 and December 1998. The patients were divided into two groups based on the type of replacement valve (154 patients in the biological xenograft group and 125 patients in the mechanical valve group), and the long-term results were compared. Clinically satisfactory results were obtained in both the biological xenograft group and the mechanical valve group according to the surgical results, long-term survival, and incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. At 15 years, fewer patients in the mechanical valve group than in the biological xenograft group were free of bleeding events (92.5 +/- 3.7% vs 100% P < 0.05). At 15 years, the biological xenograft group was lower than the mechanical valve group with respect to freedom from thromboembolism (72.2 +/- 4.6% vs 93.5 +/- 3.6% P < 0.01), freedom from valve failure (22.0 +/- 5.2% vs 87.0 +/- 4.1% P < 0.005) and freedom from cardiac events (16.5 +/- 3.9% vs 47.2 +/- 14.5% P < 0.01). Though it has previously been suggested that biological xenografts used in mitral valve replacement do not need anticoagulation, the current study suggests the need for anticoagulation with the use of biological xenografts. Mechanical valves require close monitoring of anticoagulation, but their use has decreased the incidence of valve failure and thromboembolism, as compared with the use of biological xenografts. Therefore, mechanical valves are currently the preferred choice for mitral valve replacement. We believe that biological xenografts are indicated only for the older patient (> or =65 years).
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