Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO 2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H + -ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H + activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O 2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts.
Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response to HCO3− entry via the electrogenic NaHCO3 cotransporter (NBC). Activated sAC increases intracellular cAMP levels, causing glycogen breakdown, enhanced glycolysis, and the release of lactate into the extracellular space, which is subsequently taken up by neurons for use as an energy substrate. This process is recruited over a broad physiological range of [K+]ext and also during aglycemic episodes, helping to maintain synaptic function. These data reveal a molecular pathway in astrocytes that is responsible for brain metabolic coupling to neurons.
The average surface pH of the ocean is dropping at a rapid rate due to the dissolution of anthropogenic CO 2 , raising concerns for marine life. Additionally, some coastal areas periodically experience upwelling of CO 2 -enriched water with reduced pH. Previous research has demonstrated ocean acidification (OA)-induced changes in behavioural and sensory systems including olfaction, which is due to altered function of neural gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptors. Here, we used a camera-based tracking software system to examine whether OA-dependent changes in GABA A receptors affect anxiety in juvenile Californian rockfish (Sebastes diploproa). Anxiety was estimated using behavioural tests that measure light/dark preference (scototaxis) and proximity to an object. After one week in OA conditions projected for the next century in the California shore (1125 + 100 matm, pH 7.75), anxiety was significantly increased relative to controls (483 + 40 matm CO 2 , pH 8.1). The GABA A -receptor agonist muscimol, but not the antagonist gabazine, caused a significant increase in anxiety consistent with altered Cl 2 flux in OA-exposed fish. OA-exposed fish remained more anxious even after 7 days back in control seawater; however, they resumed their normal behaviour by day 12. These results show that OA could severely alter rockfish behaviour; however, this effect is reversible.
Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems which are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.
pH homeostasis is essential for life, yet it remains unclear how animals sense their systemic acid/base (A/B) status. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionary conserved signaling enzyme that produces the second messenger cAMP in response to bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 − ). We cloned the sAC ortholog from the dogfish, a shark that regulates blood A/B by absorbing and secreting protons (H + ) and HCO 3 − at its gills. Similar to mammalian sAC, dogfish soluble adenylyl cyclase (dfsAC) is activated by HCO 3 − and can be inhibited by two structurally and mechanistically distinct small molecule inhibitors. dfsAC is expressed in the gill epithelium, where the subset of base-secreting cells resides. Injection of inhibitors into animals under alkaline stress confirmed that dfsAC is essential for maintaining systemic pH and HCO 3 − levels in the whole organism. One of the downstream effects of dfsAC is to promote the insertion of vacuolar proton pumps into the basolateral membrane to absorb H + into the blood. sAC orthologs are present throughout metazoans, and mammalian sAC is expressed in A/B regulatory organs, suggesting that systemic A/B sensing via sAC is widespread in the animal kingdom.
In biological systems, carbon dioxide exists in equilibrium with bicarbonate and protons. The individual components of this equilibrium (i.e., CO2, HCO3−, and H+), which must be sensed to be able to maintain cellular and organismal pH, also function as signals to modulate multiple physiological functions. Yet, the molecular sensors for CO2/HCO3−/pH remained unknown until recently. Here, we review recent progress in delineating molecular and cellular mechanisms for sensing CO2, HCO3−, and pH.
BackgroundMammalian Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, Adcy10, or Sacy) represents a source of the second messenger cAMP distinct from the widely studied, G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases. Genetic deletion of the second through fourth coding exons in Sacytm1Lex/Sacytm1Lex knockout mice results in a male sterile phenotype. The absence of any major somatic phenotype is inconsistent with the variety of somatic functions identified for sAC using pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference.Principal FindingsWe now use immunological and molecular biological methods to demonstrate that somatic tissues express a previously unknown isoform of sAC, which utilizes a unique start site, and which ‘escapes’ the design of the Sacytm1Lex knockout allele.Conclusions/SignificanceThese studies reveal increased complexity at the sAC locus, and they suggest that the known isoforms of sAC play a unique function in male germ cells.
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