What are the major findmgs of the investigation? 4 0 model development stage: It is crucial to have a complete schedule and to establish the level of detail to be used prior to 3D CAD model development for the 4D model to be used according to its origmal purpose. Carrent Izinitation~ of4D CAD: Current 4D models and 4D tools are not flexible and their applicability limited. Fatare reqzlired iqbrouements: Future improvements include facilitating 4D model generation, its manipulation and relaying detected problems to users through knowledge based systems. What outputs were generated (software, other reports, video, other)? 4D model of FDC office building, this report. 6. Research Status: What is the status of the research? Completed. What is the logcal next step? Conduct further research pertaining to the h t a t i o n s described in the report. Are the results ready to be applied or do they need further development? Both. What adktional efforts are required before this research could be applied? A more detailed 4D model, improvements of current 4D tools.
A comprehensive semantic understanding of a scene is important for many applications -but in what space should diverse semantic information (e.g., objects, scene categories, material types, texture, etc.) be grounded and what should be its structure? Aspiring to have one unified structure that hosts diverse types of semantics, we follow the Scene Graph paradigm in 3D, generating a 3D Scene Graph. Given a 3D mesh and registered panoramic images, we construct a graph that spans the entire building and includes semantics on objects (e.g., class, material, and other attributes), rooms (e.g., scene category, volume, etc.) and cameras (e.g., location, etc.), as well as the relationships among these entities.However, this process is prohibitively labor heavy if done manually. To alleviate this we devise a semi-automatic framework that employs existing detection methods and enhances them using two main constraints: I. framing of query images sampled on panoramas to maximize the performance of 2D detectors, and II. multi-view consistency enforcement across 2D detections that originate in different camera locations.
Seaports are located in vulnerable areas to climate change impacts: on coasts susceptible to sea-level rise and storms or at mouths of rivers susceptible to flooding. They serve a vital function within the local, regional, and global economy. Their locations in the heart of sensitive estuarine environments make it an imperative to minimize the impacts of natural hazards. Climate impacts, like a projected SLR of .6m to 2m and doubling of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes by 2100, will result in more extreme events at many seaports. To assess the current state of knowledge on this issue, we surveyed port authorities from around the world about how administrators felt climate change might impact their operations, what sea-level change would create operational problems, and how they planned to adapt to new environmental conditions. The planned rapid expansion of ports reported by the survey respondents indicates that adaptation measures should be considered as ports construct new infrastructure that may still be in use at the end of the century. Respondents agreed that the ports community needs to address this issue and most felt relatively uninformed about potential climate impacts. Although most ports felt that SLR would not be an issue at their port this century, sea-level rise was nevertheless an issue of great concern. Our results suggest opportunities for the scientific community to engage with port practitioners to prepare proactively for climate change impacts on this sector.
Seaports, Climate Change Adaptation, Climate Change Impacts, Climate Change PlanningCite as:Becker, A., S. Inoue, M. Fischer and B. Schwegler (2012). "Climate change impacts on international seaports: knowledge, perceptions, and planning efforts among port administrators." Climatic Change 110(1-2): 5-29.
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