Seeds of four lentil genotypes (Castelluccio, Eston, Pantelleria, and Ustica) were subjected to five levels (0, 10, 15, 18, and 21%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). Germination percentage, root length, tissue water content (WC), a-and b-amylases, a-glucosidase activities, and osmolyte content were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after starting the germination test. Water stress reduced seed germination percentage, root length, and seedling WC in all cultivars to different extent. The increase in proline content and total soluble sugars was greater for Eston and Castelluccio compared to the other genotypes. The activity of the enzymes involved in the germination process decreased in all cultivars; the activities of a-amylase and a-glucosidase were most negatively affected by osmotic stress, mainly in the drought sensitive Ustica and Pantelleria. Overall, Eston and Castelluccio were able to express greater drought tolerance and consequently could be used as a valuable resource for breeding programs.
A detailed characterization of two humic fractions was performed: One with low relative molecular mass (LMr<3,500 Da) and one with high relative molecular mass (HMr>3,500 Da). Distinct (1)H NMR spectroscopic patterns were observed for the two fractions. HMr showed an aromatic proton region, an intense and broad region (3.0-5.0 ppm) attributed to sugar-like and polyether components, and an intense doublet at 1.33 ppm (identified as protons of the beta-CH(3) in lactate). In contrast, LMr did not show resonances due to aromatic protons and was characterized by a broad unresolved region, assigned to sugar-like components. The (13)C NMR spectra showed that the LMr humic fraction was richer in carboxylic and aliphatic C groups compared to HMr fraction. These substances were fluorescein-labeled [fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)], and their interaction with carrot cells in culture was monitored for 10 d, and compared to FITC-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to clarify their mechanisms of biological activity. After different incubation times, fluorescein staining of carrot cells and decrease of fluorescein concentration in the culture medium were evaluated. Fluorescent membrane staining was only present in IAA and the LMr humic fraction treated cell cultures. A consequential decrease of fluorescein concentration in the culture media was also observed. Pretreatment of carrot cells with unconjugated IAA or LMr humic fraction markedly reduced fluorescein staining of both FITC-IAA and FITC-LMr humic fraction. Blocking tests gave indirect evidence of possible binding of the LMr humic fraction to IAA cell membrane receptors. These results indicate that the two humic fractions behave differently. Only LMr humic fraction, like IAA, interacts with cellular membranes in carrot cell cultures.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.