Non-invasive biomarkers, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios, may predict inflammation in various disorders, including gastritis, according to recent data. Nevertheless, various studies reported an association between Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ) and immune thrombocytopenia in both adults and pediatric patients. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of pediatric gastritis, caused or not by H pylori infection on erythrocytes, their parameters, thrombocytes, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). We performed a prospective, case–control study on 151 patients aged between 1 and 17 years who presented with chronic dyspeptic symptoms. An upper digestive endoscopy with gastric biopsies and a complete blood count was performed in each case. Control group consisted of 67 patients with normal histological findings, while the two study groups were divided into group 1— H pylori -induced gastritis (31 patients) and group 2—non- H pylori- induced gastritis (53 patients). Children from the rural area were more likely to develop both types of gastritis ( P < .01). No significant difference was found between either of the study groups and control group in terms of platelets, mean platelet volume, NLR and PLR ( P > .05). However, significantly higher values of lymphocytes were associated with non- H pylori -induced gastritis ( P < .01). Comparison of the two study groups did not reflect any significant differences in terms of hematological parameters. When assessing these constants in relation to gastritis severity, severe gastritis led to a compelling decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels. The comparison of parameters between severe, moderate, and mild gastritis did not reveal any significant results. Childhood and adolescent gastritis does not produce a significant effect upon platelet counts, their mean volume, PLR or NLR, according to our study. An important increase in lymphocyte count might predict non- H pylori pediatric gastritis. Moreover, severe gastritis might result in an important decrease in Hb and Htc levels.
The aim of this study was to assess the liver stiffness values in children with obesity versus healthy children on 2D-SWE and TE taking into account different laboratory parameters. We performed a case-control study on 287 children aged between 3 to 18 years, admitted in a Romanian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital, which we divided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two groups: the study group-77 children with obesity, and control group-210 children with normal weight. All children underwent anamnesis, clinical exam, laboratory parameters, ultrasound exam, and elastography. Children with obesity presented higher values of platelets, AST, ALT, and AAR as compared to control group (p = 0.0005/p = 0.0065/p < 0.0001/p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences for APRI between the two groups (p = 0.9827), although the values were higher in children with obesity. Significantly higher values of liver stiffness in children with obesity on both 2D-SWE and TE (p = 0.0314/p < 0.0001) were obtained. Similarly, the velocity values measured by 2D-SWE were also significantly higher in the study group (p < 0.0001). Our findings revealed significantly higher levels of platelets, transaminases, AAR, and liver stiffness values on both TE and 2D-SWE in children with obesity. 2D-SWE and TE might represent useful non-invasive methods for predicting liver impairment associated to pediatric obesity.
TE and 2D-SWE are well-documented in studies performed on adults, but those on pediatric patients are limited. The aim of this study was to establish pediatric reference values for liver stiffness using two elastography methods: 2D-SWE and TE. We performed an observational study on 206 healthy children. All children underwent anamnesis, clinical exam, laboratory tests, US exam, TE and 2D-SWE for liver stiffness assessment. The mean liver stiffness value by 2D-SWE for all children was 3.72 ± 0.48 kPa. The mean values ranged between 3.603 ± 0.2678 kPa (3–5 years of age) and 3.774 ± 0.4038 kPa (9–11 years). The reference values varied between 4.1386 kPa (3–5 years of age) and 4.88 kPa (12–15 years). The mean liver stiffness value by TE was 3.797 ± 0.4859 kPa. The values ranged between 3.638 ± 0.4088 kPa (6–8 years of age) and 3.961 ± 0.5695 kPa (15–18 years). The cutoff values varied from 4.4064 kPa (3–5 years of age) to 5.1 kPa (15–18 years). We found a significant positive correlation between E Median values by TE and age [95% CI: 0.1160 to 0.3798, r = 0.2526, p = 0.0002]. Our findings revealed that the mean values of liver stiffness for all children on 2D-SWE and TE were almost identical, 3.72 ± 0.48 kPa versus 3.797 ± 0.4859 kPa.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remains the most-researched etiological factor for gastric inflammation and malignancies. Its evolution towards gastric complications is dependent upon host immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize surface and molecular patterns of the bacterium, especially the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and act upon pathways, which will finally lead to activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), a transcription factor that stimulates release of inflammatory cytokines. MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) finely modulate TLR signaling, but their expression is also modulated by activation of NF-kB-dependent pathways. This review aims to focus upon several of the most researched miRNAs on this subject, with known implications in host immune responses caused by H. pylori, including let-7 family, miRNA-155, miRNA-146, miRNA-125, miRNA-21, and miRNA-221. TLR–LPS interactions and their afferent pathways are regulated by these miRNAs, which can be considered as a bridge, which connects gastric inflammation to pre-neoplastic and malignant lesions. Therefore, they could serve as potential non-invasive biomarkers, capable of discriminating H. pylori infection, as well as its associated complications. Given that data on this matter is limited in children, as well as for as significant number of miRNAs, future research has yet to clarify the exact involvement of these entities in the progression of H. pylori-associated gastric conditions.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) carcinogenicity depends on three major factors: bacterial virulence constituents, environmental factors and host’s genetic susceptibility. The relationship between microenvironmental factors and H. pylori virulence factors are incontestable. H. pylori infection has a major impact on both gastric and colonic microbiota. The presence of non-H. pylori bacteria within the gastric ecosystem is particularly important since they might persistently act as an antigenic stimulus or establish a partnership with H. pylori in order to augment the subsequent inflammatory responses. The gastric ecosystem, i.e., microbiota composition in children with H. pylori infection is dominated by Streptoccocus, Neisseria, Rothia and Staphylococcus. The impairment of this ecosystem enhances growth and invasion of different pathogenic bacteria, further impairing the balance between the immune system and mucosal barrier. Moreover, altered microbiota due to H. pylori infection is involved in increasing the gastric T regulatory cells response in children. Since gastric homeostasis is defined by the partnership between commensal bacteria and host’s immune system, this review is focused on how pathogen recognition through toll-like receptors (TLRs—an essential class of pathogen recognition receptors—PRRs) on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells impact the immune response in the setting of H. pylori infection. Further studies are required for delineate precise role of bacterial community features and of immune system components.
BACKGROUND Innate immunity was found to be associated with both persistence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and increased risk of gastric cancer. AIM To identify the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection and to establish the role of TLR9 rs352140 in suppressing or promoting inflammation related to this infection in children. METHODS We performed a study of 155 children with digestive symptoms, who were divided into two groups according to the histopathological exam: Group 1 – 48 children with H. pylori -induced chronic gastritis, and Group 2 – control group. RESULTS Rural area and poor living conditions were significantly associated with H. pylori chronic gastritis ( P = 0.0042/ P < 0.0001). Both positive immunoglobulin A anti H. pylori and the rapid urease test were significantly associated with H. pylori infection ( P < 0.0001). Significantly higher values of leukocytes and neutrophils within the peripheral blood were found in children with H. pylori chronic gastritis ( P = 0.111/ P = 0.284). We found a significant positive correlation between the variant TT genotype of TLR9 rs352140 polymorphism and both leucocytes and neutrophils ( P = 0.0225/ P = 0.0292). CONCLUSION Variant TT genotype carriers of the TLR9 rs352140 gene polymorphism might have a more severe degree of inflammation.
The well-documented systemic inflammation associated to pediatric obesity might act as an augmenting factor for other inflammatory conditions, such as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) associated to COVID-19. We report the case of 9-year-old boy admitted in our clinic for fever, anorexia, and fatigability. The clinical exam revealed influenced general status, palpebral edema, non-exudative conjunctivitis, and abdominal tenderness. The patient weighed 45 kg. The laboratory tests at the time of admission pointed out anemia, lymphopenia; elevated inflammatory biomarkers, NT-proBNP, D-dimers, and troponin; high liver enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase levels, as well as hypoalbuminemia. The patient tested positive for both RT-PCR and serology for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We initiated intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone, associated with empirical antibiotic, anticoagulation therapy, and symptomatic treatment. The patient was discharged on the 7th day of admission with the recommendation to continue enoxaparin and methylprednisolone at home tapering the dose for the next week. The subclinical inflammatory status associated to obesity might serve as an unfortunate trigger factor for the development of COVID-19 severe forms in children. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that children with obesity and COVID-19 represent a peculiar group that should be closely monitored and thoroughly assessed in order to preempt life-threatening complications, such as PIMS.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers