ResumoObjetivo: Avaliar a contratransferência dos terapeutas durante o atendimento inicial de pacientes mulheres vítimas de violência sexual e urbana, investigando a influência do gênero do terapeuta e da natureza e momento do trauma. Método: A amostra foi composta por 36 relatos redigidos por médicos residentes de psiquiatria do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, oriundos do atendimento de 36 pacientes. Este estudo utilizou métodos qualitativos e quantitativos para a análise dos seus dados. Os relatos foram classificados em seis grupos, conforme o gênero do terapeuta e a natureza do trauma. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo dos relatos. Associou-se uma análise estatística dos dados. Resultados: Houve predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação nos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento de vítimas de violência sexual. Entre terapeutas mulheres, a natureza do trauma (sexual ou urbano) não influenciou os padrões contratransferenciais (p = 0,7). Entre os terapeutas homens, ao contrário, a natureza do trauma influenciou de forma significativa (p = 0,044) o padrão contratransferencial, havendo um número elevado de sentimentos de distanciamento nos relatos de atendimentos de vítimas de violência urbana. Conclusões: Houve um predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação dos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento inicial de pacientes vítimas de violência sexual. Foi observado um predomínio de sentimentos de distanciamento nos terapeutas homens que atenderam vítimas de violência urbana. Mais estudos são necessários para uma melhor compreensão das relações terapêuticas nos atendimentos de vítimas de trauma psíquico. Descritores: Contratransferência, violência sexual, violência urbana, trauma psíquico, psicoterapia. AbstractObjective: To assess therapists' countertransference during initial care of female victims of sexual and urban violence with the aim of investigating influence of therapist's gender, type and moment of trauma. Methods: The sample comprised 36 reports written by psychiatry residents at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre based on the care provided to 36 patients. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis. Reports were classified into six groups according to therapist's gender and type of trauma. A content analysis and a statistical analysis of the data were performed.
Basic bovine behavior is a crucial parameter influencing cattle domestication. In addition, behavior has an impact on cattle productivity, welfare and adaptation. The aim of the present study was to infer quantitative genetic and genomic mechanisms contributing to natural dual-purpose cow behavior in grazing systems. In this regard, we genotyped five dual-purpose breeds for a dense SNP marker panel from four different European countries. All cows from the across-country study were equipped with the same electronic recording devices. In this regard, we analyzed 97,049 longitudinal sensor behavior observations from 319 local dual-purpose cows for rumination, feeding, basic activity, high active, not active and ear temperature. According to the specific sensor behaviors and following a welfare protocol, we computed two different welfare indices. For genomic breed characterizations and multi-breed genome-wide association studies, sensor traits and test-day production records were merged with 35,826 SNP markers per cow. For the estimation of variance components, we used the pedigree relationship matrix and a combined similarity matrix that simultaneously included both pedigree and genotypes. Heritabilities for feeding, high active and not active were in a moderate range from 0.16 to 0.20. Estimates were very similar from both relationship matrix-modeling approaches and had quite small standard errors. Heritabilities for the remaining sensor traits (feeding, basic activity, ear temperature) and welfare indices were lower than 0.09. Five significant SNPs on chromosomes 11, 17, 27 and 29 were associated with rumination, and two different SNPs significantly influenced the sensor traits “not active” (chromosome 13) and “feeding” (chromosome 23). Gene annotation analyses inferred 22 potential candidate genes with a false discovery rate lower than 20%, mostly associated with rumination (13 genes) and feeding (8 genes). Mendelian randomization based on genomic variants (i.e., the instrumental variables) was used to infer causal inference between an exposure and an outcome. Significant regression coefficients among behavior traits indicate that all specific behavioral mechanisms contribute to similar physiological processes. The regression coefficients of rumination and feeding on milk yield were 0.10 kg/% and 0.12 kg/%, respectively, indicating their positive influence on dual-purpose cow productivity. Genomically, an improved welfare behavior of grazing cattle, i.e., a higher score for welfare indices, was significantly associated with increased fat and protein percentages.
Black and White dual-purpose cattle (DSN) are kept in diverse production systems, but the same set of genetic parameters is used for official national genetic evaluations, neglecting the herd or production system characteristics. The aim of the present study was to infer genetic (co)variance components within and across defined herd descriptor groups or clusters, considering only herds keeping the local and endangered DSN breed. The study considered 3659 DSN and 2324 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows from parities one to three. The 46 herds always kept DSN cows, but in most cases, herds were ‘mixed’ herds (Mixed), including both genetic lines HF and DSN. In order to study environmental sensitivity, we had a focus on the naturally occurring negative energy balance in the early lactation period. In consequence, traits were records from the 1st official test-day after calving for milk yield (Milk-kg), somatic cell score (SCS) and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Genetic parameters were estimated in bivariate runs (separate runs for the three genetic lines Mixed, HF and DSN), defining the same trait from different herd groups or clusters as different traits. Additive-genetic variances and heritabilities were larger in herd groups that indicated superior herd management, implying that cow records from these herds allow a better genetic differentiation. Superior herd management included larger herds, low calving age, high herd production levels and low intra-herd somatic cell count. Herd descriptor group differences in additive-genetic variances for Milk-kg were stronger in HF than in DSN, indicating environmental sensitivity for DSN. Similar variance components and heritabilities across groups, clusters and genetic lines were found for data stratification according to geographical descriptors altitude and latitude. Considering 72 bivariate herd group runs, 29 genetic correlations were very close to 1 (mostly for Milk-kg). Somatic cell score was the trait showing the smallest genetic correlations, especially in the DSN analyses, and when stratifying herds according to genetic line compositions (rg=0.11), or according to the percentage of natural service sires (rg=0.08). For estimations based on the results of a cluster analysis considering several herd descriptors simultaneously, indications for genotype × environment interactions could be found for SCS, but genetic correlations were larger than 0.80 for Milk-kg and FPR. In conclusion, we suggest multiple-trait animal model applications in genetic evaluations, in order to select the best sires for specific herd environments or herd clusters.
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